✪✪✪ Argumentative Essay: Controversy Over War Photography
How has the way we travel Argumentative Essay: Controversy Over War Photography over time? In Ms. The importance of coffee Argumentative Essay: Controversy Over War Photography fluctuations over time. His work of graffiti has been done on the rob hall climber throughout the world, though Argumentative Essay: Controversy Over War Photography keeps a mysterious identity. Argumentative Essay: Controversy Over War Photography This. The art elements are line, shape, form, tone, living conditions in the trenches, pattern, colour and composition.
Photographic block, feeling uninspired and demotivated, maybe I can help
How many more lives will be lost? Each year over 13 million individuals are bullied, there are about 4, deaths in the United States by suicide those being bullied have a greater chance to be one of those individuals. No one should be cyber bullied, bullies need to be punished for their actions. Megan Meier from Dardenne Prairie, Missouri committed suicide on October 17, at the age of 13 due to cyberbullying. Therefore each state should pass laws preventing cyberbullying and punishments for bullies.
Bullying is a stab in the heart after the constant fighting,trying to get through the pain, the heart gives up as the individual cannot take it anymore. Sources The Associated Press. The New York Times, 28 Nov. Chavez, Anna Maria. Young people need to be protected by law since a majority is ignorant of the consequences that follow every decision.
It not only applied to drinking and smoking, but combat as well. When both parties are in agreement that one is in need of guidance, justifies raising the age limit, making it equivalent, provides consistency. Dealing with consumption, privileges and the civic engagement, privileges are the least controversial of the three. At 16, young people can receive their license. There should be regulations—which some states have already implemented. This ensures health and safety of young people as reminder for teenagers, parents, businesses, law enforcement, retailers and merchants.
Buying cigarettes and drinking alcohol is next controversial. It would receive outcry. Cheryl G. Healton, dean of Global Health at N. Some will argue about the consistency. Keeping the age limit to drive at 16, treating them like minors until 21, and raising it to 21 for the other issues, will receive different levels of criticism. Young people are supposed to make mistakes and everyone is a life lesson learned.
Hartocollis, Anemona. Wait Till 21, Young Recruits Say. Johnson, Ruth. Department of State. State of Michigan, This is true, even by Christian standards; there are atheists practice good deeds and some who practice evil deeds, just like there are Christians who practice good deeds and some who practice evil deeds. Some atheists give to the poor, help those in jail, feed the hungry, clothe the naked and do other things a good Christian should do. Being an atheist does not always equate to being an immoral or bad person. So yes you can be good and you can do this without believing in God. What is God, is there a single definition or are there multiple?
According to Roman Catholic belief, what we refer to as God is an all powerful deity consisting of The Father, the son, and the Holy spirit. A common understanding of this God, to many non-Christians is the guy in the white garb standing on the clouds with the beard and sandals;this is not the sole image of God. Truly whatever religion whatever race what ever culture, if you are just and honest and practice these things then God is with you.
So The more prevalent question here instead of can you be good without god is: are people ever without God? God is not bound to human form nor is God bound to any of the laws of physics or reality that are recognized by modern day science Proverbs This means that God can and does appear in a multitude of forms and situations. We must be careful not to put God into human restraints: God is not subject to the same terms that we judge our fellow men and women Job In this way God is all around us, even inside our hearts. God knows us like we know ourselves because we all have a little piece of God in ourselves, this furthers the fact that no one can be without God. Even people who are commonly considered immoral or evil have God in them or around them; just because one does not believe in God does not mean God is not present so even murderers and stone cold criminals have God in their life.
The argument can be made that if God knows a certain person will go to hell after they die from the beginning why does he not just send them straight to hell? The answer is that life is a journey and if God were to send people straight to hell without giving them a chance to walk the path of life and understand what they are called to do, then it would be extremely unfair. Just because a person is an atheist does not mean they are doomed to hell; actions speak louder than words. It really is true. God has a roundabout way of getting things done. God is in fact everywhere and we cannot and will not part unto death. I believe that what people call God is something in all of us. I believe that what Jesus and Mohammed and Buddha and all the rest said was right.
Due to the controversial and seemingly almost unique view included in this editorial, there are no New York Times sources that support the ideas expressed. I hope to receive a slight pardon for not having a NY times source. If this essay does not qualify, I understand. Why does society men and women tell women that they have to appeal a certain way to the public eye? Since this is true who do we as a society tend to present to women that they need to change.
In some cases women have always been told what to do or how to appeal a certain way to the public eye. The woman should see herself just as worthy as she sees all the other women. In some circumstances, women have always been told that they have to take the second seat to man. Throughout this song i can confer that some women are able to handle the pressure of the workplace, whereas other women like the role of being a domestic engineer.
However, Maybelline expresses through their campaign that women should indeed wear makeup. Society needs to stop advertising a certain type of woman, and show all types of women. New Yorks Times, 03 Oct. Does Technology make us more alone? As a greatness that has increased the way that we perceive the world, technology can be a burden. Unlike the many screen glossed eyes and over exerted thumbs, technology is doing something far worse than hand cramps: it is making the human mind more comfortable with being alone and devoid of human contact. People typically pay more attention to the subjects that interest them and would most likely try to find those subjects online where they are easiest to access.
Yes, despite increasing our knowledge, it is decreasing our ability to converse with one another. The fear of being judged all gone with eye contact glued to a screen. It is as if no one wants to be bothered by others around them, but is willing to have millions follow them on social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Even Sherry Turkle- a psychologist and professor employed at M. This need to be important and loved by a persona is a reassuring concept that provides those two wants without having to deal with actual human emotion.
The need for interaction with living, breathing people seems to be cast aside for the more accurate version from a nonliving thing such as a robot. We live in an age where technology is a necessity in life, but it is becoming a way to destroy connecting and feeling emotions from other people, enforcing being alone in a world that is barely real. New York Times. April 21, March 2, Marijuana is more helpful than harmful. Statistics state that 88, people die from alcohol and more than , people die from cigars.
While less than a hundred people die from the marijuana usage. This drug benefits people with diseases such as cancer. It seems that many people would rather drink alcohol that can become addictive rather than smoke marijuana which is a drug that most people value for medical needs. Marijuana is being legalized in many places for different reasons. In Guatemala, the president has put forward a plan for the government to legalize and sell the drug. While these two places are allowing the drug, majority of the U. S is still against the use of marijuana.
S has rejected legalization as a solution to drug use. S have different emotions about this debate with many citizens not accepting the drug. People should be able to smoke a substance that is natural rather than tobacco which is mixed with a highly addictive substance called nicotine. Allen St. Pierre a Executive Director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws agrees that the drug marijuana should be legalized.
He stated that he hopes more Americans would legalize it. Marijuana has been proven to be a palliative drug and should be legalized in the U. Archibold, Randal C. Sexual Violence against Young Women According to American Medical Association, Sexual violence and rape are considered the most under reported violent crime. In the Steubenville case 2 high school football players were found guilty of raping a year-old girl. After being found guilty of raping and sending nude images of the girl around, 1 boy got 1 year in juvenile jail and the other boy got 2 years.
Rape is rape and no matter what age the rapists are the consequences should be served based on the crime not their age. In Ms. The teenage boys thought that because they were football stars that they were unstoppable and could get away with anything until they were caught and found guilty. There in any case is never an impulse to blame the victim noted on what she was wearing. So the amount of insincerity people are showing to the victim of this case is unbearable. Social media also had a big role on the insincerity people showed the victim. At what point can law representatives intervene in family life and is there ever a justifiable reason to do this?
How do human rights differ in different countries? Should laws be employed surrounding the area of tax avoidance? To what extent is it possible to accidentally commit tax fraud? Should there be limits on free speech? Should voting be mandatory by law? To what extent would bringing back the death penalty impact crime rate? Should genetically modified food be banned under the law? The blurred lines of Copyright law. Should a law be introduced where all police encounters are recorded?
Should prenuptial agreements be more widely accepted? Does modern technology aid the legal system or does it simply add unneeded complexity? What should the age of criminal responsibility be, should it be different for certain crimes? Should artificial intelligence be introduced into our legal system? Is the hierarchy of the main civil courts the most effective way to run the legal system? Are the rules regarding legal fees fair and just? Have the laws successfully kept up with the times or is our current legal system outdated? Should people be detained without bail before they stand trial?
In what circumstances should prisoners have the right to vote? Is employment protection sufficient or does it need updating? How do intellectual property rights affect the economy? Are crimes actually enforceable? What is the role of the legal system in preventing domestic violence? To what extent should scientists influence the law? How effective are the probation laws in the UK? How effective is the supreme court in carrying out its roles? Are junior lawyers experienced enough to manage high-responsibility cases?
Data protection and its many faults. How does the law determine what qualifies for negligence? Which legal systems support refugees and how do these systems work? The differences between the UK and US police forces. Which methods are most effective at detecting whether or not a prison has been rejuvenated? What is diplomatic immunity and why does it exist? How are war crimes prosecuted? At what age should children have access to the internet? Is allowing women to work as front line police officers safe? How can the misuse of power by the police force be dealt with effectively? Should the seat belt law be removed in the UK?
How the internet has bred new forms of crime, such as revenge porn Are the laws regarding cybercrime outdated? Why can a single crime have so many different punishments? How accurate are eyewitnesses to a crime? How should we deal with false convictions? Should prostitution be legal? How much would it economically benefit the UK to bring back the death penalty? From the moment the tax system was implemented, there have been widespread arguments about whether or not the system did what was intended. The concept behind the progressive income tax system is that the more money someone makes, they higher the proportion of their income they should pay towards taxes.
At least that is the idea. In your extended project, you could contrast the currently accepted progressive income tax system to a one of the below different tax systems:. National minimum wages were introduced to protect workers from getting underpaid in the workplace. A minimum wage, enforced by the government, requires every employer within a nation to pay above a certain hourly rate. However, the concept of a minimum wage does not bring just advantages, it also can have its drawbacks.
If you are interested in exploring this EPQ idea, take a look at this book on Amazon. It talks about the direct and indirect effects of the introduction of a minimum wage. Before even considering this idea, you need to take a step back and learn what inflation is and how and why it fluctuates. Without a good understanding on the financial concept, you will struggle to draw up conclusion within your EPQ. There are plenty of absolutely free resources on the internet that you can use to learn about inflation. Below, I have listed a few some fellow students found useful:. This is a massively broad topic as there are numerous aspects of the economy you could talk about, with each aspect having sub-aspects you could delve deep into.
With this idea, it really is down to your economic preference. So, if just the thought of Brexit shuddered the economy, what will Brexit actually happening do to the economy? Trade, diplomatic relations and finance are all topics you could discuss within an extended project. All of which promise to be just as controversial as the last. When completing an EPQ, make sure you are factual and try your best to be unbiased when analysing statistics. Immigration by itself seems to cause arguments over the dinner table, but illegal immigration is an entirely different ball game. In direct contrast, some people feel as though everyone has an opportunity apply for citizenship legally and illegal immigrants should be treated with firm policy.
An interesting book by Elizabeth F. Cohen talks about the American immigration system and its many failures. It may be worth a read, if you are considering this EPQ idea. Immigration is the foundation of many countries across the globe. Arguably the most powerful country in the world, the United States, was completely built up from immigrants. If this is the case, why do so many people hate the idea of immigration and why are they often hostile to immigrants? After all, if they came to the country legally, what is the problem? Well, you could address all of those questions within your EPQ project! The crisis had wide reaching implications on economies across the globe. An essay on how different parts of the UK in particular suffered during the economic crisis may be interesting.
You could talk about the following economic statistics and how they changed:. During the US presidential election, trickle-down economics was featured a few times more than once. However, many believe that in practice the concept is a myth and rarely works. Read more about trickle-down economics here. Trade tariffs and their place in the global economy is unknown to many people. So, an EPQ educating people on what they are and the effects they have could be really useful. Take a look at some of the questions you could address below:. Does the UK have the financial ability to accommodate more immigrants? How have monetary and fiscal policies changed in recent years?
What is the role of the financial markets in a world of uncertainty? Why might an economy experience disequilibrium? The future of economics regarding artificial intelligence and modern technology. How did Brexit affect the EU economies? The influence of behavioural economics on globalisation. Can environmental economics solve the problem of climate change? What does the future look like for emerging economies? What is the difference between economics and finance? The economic theory surrounding diamonds and water and how it is applied.
What is the impact that demand and supply have on pricing during an economic crisis? Is perfect competition ever possible? How do unemployment rates affect the economy? How will the decline of high street stores impact the economy? How petrol and diesel prices fluctuate over time and how these prices mirror real-world events. What are the chances of another global recession? The contribution of higher education towards the economy. How can countries maintain a balance of trade in a crisis? Does the government properly manage fiscal policy? How does a country control its consumer spending? Why can economics often fail to account for the value of housing? Why are most countries moving towards a free-market economy? How can irrational consumer behaviours damage an economy?
Economics as a social science. How do economies successfully allocate and utilise scarce resources? The relationship between marginal benefit and supply and demand. How do economies account for surplus amounts of supply? How and why does a market fail? The effects of income and prices on consumption choices. How to effectively benefit from economies of scale. The consequences of exiting a market. Is the policy regarding monopolies strict enough? The impact of a trade union on employment.
What are the factors that shift the demand for labour? How has economics been affected by the change in our lifestyles? The many misconceptions surrounding the gender pay gap. The impact that a hour working week has on an economy. How can cartels manipulate oil and gas prices? Is the high street really dying or just evolving? Can the high street bounce back from the recent downturn in revenue? Which factors contribute to a high unemployment rate? The importance of coffee price fluctuations over time.
What is the fairest income tax system? Would a flat tax rate aid the economy more than a progressive tax rate? Which factors determine house pricing? What causes inflation? What are the effects of having a high minimum wage? Are the European economies too reliant on each other? What affect did WW2 have on the economies of the world? Why do socialist economies always fail? How has the global demand for oil changed over time? The pros and cons of a privatised health care system How can people get out of the poverty trap? Why wealth inequality is not as big of an issue as people think. The ability to have debates is an important skill, and can be applied to many different jobs and scenarios.
It is essentially the ability to form rational, fact-based, well-structured arguments, and be able to understand and respond to the counter-arguments in a reasonable, effective way. This is a great English EPQ idea because it is not only focused on language skills, but also has a wonderful range of applications, which can be used in your life in the future. In order to start this project, you may want to consider looking at a broad book which details some debating techniques, such as this book , which gives a wide range of information about debating. Literature has always been a tool that has been used to record experiences, as well as to aid people in getting through difficult times.
You therefore may want to consider doing some research about the type of literature that was produced during World War 2, and the impact that it had on people at the time. You could consider discussing:. In terms of relation to English, you can explore the differences between girls and boys in their general abilities in the subject, and either confirm or challenge the stereotypes. Subjects such as these give you the opportunity to really debate whether or not there is a difference, and the reasons why or why not this is true.
You could start by looking at some existing arguments alongside academic research around these subjects. This idea would give you the opportunity to express your opinion in a structured, evidence-based way, and would be a great way to show off your English abilities in terms of debating skills. Looking at the development of literature over the years is a really interesting route to go down for your EPQ. The 19 th century was an era of change for a number of reasons, and obviously this had a huge impact on the literature at the time.
There were major changes in general opinions and outlooks about the world due to new scientific research and publications. For this project idea, you may want to follow a love of reading, and evaluate specific books of the time, comparing them to literature before the s. You could also have a look at books which provide a summary of the societal changes in the s and their causes. My recommendation can be found here. Bias in the media is another societal issue which would be interesting to discuss in your project.
English and journalism are very linked, and you may want to consider looking at:. English techniques can be incredibly persuasive, and the use of specific techniques can be a really interesting area to consider for an EPQ project. There are a variety of ways which you could approach this subject, and this is one of the things that makes this a great choice. This is an idea which could not only enable you to recognise and understand the techniques that writers use, but it can also help you to improve your writing, and persuasive skills.
There is some literature about this subject already, and an example of a useful book can be found here. You could also consider analysing specific speeches and pieces of literature which have had impact in the world. The takeover of jobs by computers is a concern for many people, and so it is interesting to consider what makes a job something which just a human is capable of doing. Is journalism one of these careers? What are the reasons for your judgement?
You may want to look at subjects which are in the news currently, and some examples of these news pages can be found here:. This may lead you to some further information, and could start your consideration of the elements of journalism that could be replaced, as well as the reasons that we need human journalists. Literature has always been an important part of society. It gives people the chance to escape from struggles which they are facing, and also often reflects the context in which it was written.
We can look back on literature from certain time periods and gain insight into the experiences and beliefs of people at the time. However, there are so many forms of media at the moment, and you might be able to argue that literature is starting to lose its impact. Your project could discuss:. Shakespeare is arguably the most famous English writer in history, and you will have certainly come across his work in school, and heard about Shakespeare in general society. But what made Shakespeare so influential? What was unique about his writing? You can look at the works produced by Shakespeare in order to discuss his plays, and identifying the unique elements yourself is something that will make your EPQ a very strong essay.
You may want to use these as a starting point for your project. How did Shakespeare present the effect of tragic madness in Hamlet? How has creative writing changed throughout the course of history? Will technology influence the originality of creative writing? Why are the best books in history being turned into films and do the films live up to the books? How Jane Austin used her novels to address feminism and its effect at the time. To what extent has literature addressed mental illness in the 20th century?
How has the perception of love and relationships changed in English novels over the last century? Is poetry the same as it was years ago? Is the use of narrators becoming outdated? How did the English language evolve and is it still evolving? Do the common abbreviations we use today actually make sense? Should English teachers take on a more practical approach? Is knowing how to spell important anymore with spell check to do it for you? Do English teachers properly prepare students for university exams?
The importance of authentic English. What are the most effective ways to teach young people the correct vocabulary? The role of language teaching for dyslexia students, does it work? Why general English is not enough for employability?. How do you tailor English skills for specific jobs? Does the ability to communicate effectively impact confidence? Can gaming support language learning? The importance of grammar in modern language. Should English be considered an art or an academic skill? Do different motivations change how students learn English? Does homeschooling affect the ability to learn English properly?
Why is learning English so different from learning other subjects? Can English minimise cross-cultural communication challenges? Why has English grammar always changed? Does the type of language we use influence the way we think? What does the future of the English language look like? Is the way we analyse literature outdated? Why is English so widely spoken? Why has the representation of masculinity not changed in the English language?
Why are more neologisms used today? How has our pronunciation changed? How Greek mythology is portrayed in English novels. How is argumentative writing taught in schools? How does literacy rate affect the development of a country? Is the demand for English graduates increasing or decreasing? The rise of gothic literature. What effect has the internet had on journalism? To what extent do the writing styles of men and women differ? Are native English speakers advantaged over others? How have gender roles changed in novels over time? Evaluating the political agenda behind many poems How was religion portrayed in 20th century British novels? Evaluating the importance of symbolism in literature What contributions did Shakespeare make to literature?
How have attitudes towards literature changed over time? How has our use of language changed since the development of the internet? How does literature affect culture? The origins of punctuation and why it was needed. A market monopoly is commonly known to occur when a single company or a cluster of companies have an extremely high percentage of a share of the market. Market monopolies are bad for many reasons; some are listed below:. If you want more advantages and disadvantages of market monopolies, take a look here. High levels of entrepreneurship would be a great thing for the UK government. After all, the more people who wish to start their own businesses, the more businesses there will be. More businesses will always lead to more jobs, which is a good thing for everyone.
So, if everyone wants more entrepreneurship, how can we incentivise it in our society effectively? This is the question you should aim to answer if you take on this EPQ project idea. There are many different avenues you can take with this idea, ranging from government grants to decreased taxation. What you will find during your EPQ is that for every incentivisation that effectively leads to increased levels of entrepreneurship, there will be plenty of drawbacks.
For example, decreased taxation very well may increase the number of start-ups incorporated, but short-term, may lead to lesser government revenues. When people think of taxes, they usually let their minds sway towards their personal income tax. However, income taxes are not the only tax and small business owners most definitely know it. Below, I have listed some of the other taxes that business owners have to worry about:. Many small business owners, especially in the retail and hospitality sectors, have razor thin margins already and taxes can often push them to their budgeting limits. This can sometimes lead to closures and shutdowns, which over the course of a medium to long term period, can have the reverse effect of the government collecting less in taxes.
This leads to the question of is it really worth having all of these taxes? To understand more information on taxes that business owners are subject to, I recommend that you take a look at this book on Amazon. Corporate tax has been the central point of many arguments over the decades. Lots of business owners and some policymakers feel as though it punishes companies that have finally made a profit. Making a profit can be a yearlong venture for many companies and some argue that when they finally cross the threshold of sustainability, they should be rewarded, not punished.
If the corporation tax was lowered, would the economy gain from the move or would the government not only receive less tax revenues in the short term, but also the long term? This a great question that you could discuss during your EPQ. Marketing has been significantly influenced by the growth of the online sector. However, marketing has changed in many other ways than just the move to online. In your EPQ, you could discuss either the online transition or the many other ways marketing has changed. Before starting an EPQ project of this nature, I would recommend take a look at some marketing-themed books, that instruct businesses on how to market their products example here.
This will give you a good idea of what methods companies are using today. One such way marketing has changed has been related to the increased understanding of human psychology. If you want to know more about the relationship between psychology and corporate marketing, take a look at this book. Everyone can think of a least one business leader they have heard of, whether it be Steve Jobs, Elon Musk or any one of the thousand others. Business leaders are required to possess extraordinary organisation and communication skills. Although there are some pretty standard traits of successful business leaders, they are all very different.
Due to this, a study into what characteristics lead to the absolute best business leaders would really interesting. Below are some characteristics that have been rumoured to be effective at predicating a good business leader:. Although you should not take it as fact, this book will get you thinking about the characteristics of a business leader. What can a business do in order for it to motivate its employees to not only be happier in their line of work but also be more productive. Some business owners have gone down the route of offering shares in the company to their employees. This leads to the employee feeling a significantly more direct impact of their work as they themselves directly benefit from the company performing well. Below, I have listed some techniques business owners have attempted.
Each one is linked to a resource where you can learn more about the particular case study. CEOs work very hard in a lot of cases. In return, they are usually paid the big bucks. However, many people have the opinion that CEOs pay is not proportional to the amount of work they do. Why not express your views on this topic within your EPQ Project? Ensure that for every opinion that you discuss, you provide subsequent evidence — ideally with references. Mobile phones have taken over the technology market and advertising has adjusted to the new audience.
How has it changed and in what ways will it continue to change over the coming years? The effect of refinancing a business. Why would a business want to diversify into a new market? What are the complications of globalisation for a well-known business? What is the impact of the decline in high street stores for larger corporations? Is Amazon the reason for the decline in high street stores? The importance of creativity within a business.
The value of becoming a private limited company. Does organisational structure affect the internal performance of a business? Should corporate social responsibility be adopted by all businesses? What are the stages of decision making within large corporations? Do shareholders put too much pressure on businesses for dividends? Does an increase in autonomy improve performance of employees? How do businesses decide on their sources of finance? How to evaluate the risk involved with new ventures. How does politics intervene in the business world?
How do businesses use big data within marketing? The important elements within entrepreneurship that lead to success. How is project management run? How does organisational culture differ in the largest businesses in the world? The relationship between accounting and business. The legal and ethical considerations that need to be made when operating in other countries. The role of research and development for a company. How the leaders and managers of a business influence the attitude of the entire organisation. Which methods classify as sustainable manufacturing?
Is constant innovation needed to compete in a sector? How do businesses change their strategies? The value of planning and control within a business. How to properly analyse a market. How economics impacts business activities. How to build good relationships with consumers. How to improve product quality. How to manage intellectual property within a business. What are the processes within the administration of a company? How helpful are business models for managers? Should business studies be taught in all schools? What are the attitudes of a successful entrepreneur? How important is stock control? How much should a company pay its employees? How has the airline industry developed over time? Do big international companies pay their fair share in taxes?
How are successful start-ups formed? What is the real impact of a strike on a business? The ethical problems surrounding a business outsourcing their work. Are the government incentivising start-ups enough? Has the music industry been hurt by the rise of the internet? How and why do business adapt their marketing strategies? How can companies tackle the issue of climate change? Evaluating the case for a single global currency How apple became the tech giant it is today The value of apprenticeships for employers and employees How does a business change when transitioning from private to public? Why is amazon protected from current monopoly laws? How can oligopolies result in market collusion?
How to make an effective logo for your business. Self-driving cars raise a variety of ethical issues, and this is a really interesting issue that is currently relevant, and would therefore be very interesting to discuss in an EPQ. This is because situations arise where drivers are required to make choices about who to protect in terms of traffic accidents. It helped publish a great number of Romanian language books and newspapers, and between and , it published a Romanian Encyclopedia.
Mihai Eminescu , national poet of Romania and Moldova. The first half of the 20th century is regarded by many as the golden age of Romanian culture, and it is the period when it reached its main level of international affirmation and a strong connection to European cultural trends. The relationship between traditional and Western European trends was a subject of heated polemics, and outstanding personalities sustained the debates. The beginning of the 20th century was also a prolific period for Romanian prose, with personalities such as the novelist Liviu Rebreanu , who described the struggles in the traditional society and the horrors of war, Mihail Sadoveanu , a writer of novels of epic proportions with inspiration from the medieval history of Moldavia, and Camil Petrescu , a more modern writer distinguishing himself through his analytical prose writing.
In dramaturgy , Mihail Sebastian was an influential writer, and as the number of theaters grew, also did the number of actors, Lucia Sturdza Bulandra being an actress representative of this period. One should not neglect the poems of George Bacovia , a symbolist poet of neurosis, and despair and those of Ion Barbu , a brilliant mathematician who wrote a series of very successful cryptic poems. The period was dominated by the overwhelming personality of the historian and politician Nicolae Iorga , who, during his lifetime, published over 1, books and wrote more than 25, articles.
In medicine, a great contribution to human society was the discovery of insulin by the Romanian scientist Nicolae Paulescu. In Romania, the communist regime imposed heavy censorship on almost all elements of life, and they used the cultural world as a means to better control the population. The freedom of expression was constantly restricted in various ways: the Sovietization period was an attempt at building up a new cultural identity on the basis of socialist realism and lending legitimacy to the new order by rejecting traditional values.
Two currents appeared: one that glorified the regime and another that tried to avoid censorship. The first is probably of no lasting cultural value, but the second managed to create valuable works, successfully avoiding censorship and being very well received by the general public. Most dissidents who chose not to emigrate lived a life closely watched by the regime, either in "house arrest" or in "forced domicile"; some chose to retreat to remote monasteries. Most of their work was published after the Revolution. There was a chasm between the official, communist culture and genuine culture. On the one hand, against the authorities' intentions, the outstanding works were perceived as a realm of moral truths, and the significant representatives of genuine cultural achievement were held in very high esteem by the public opinion.
On the other hand, the slogans disseminated nationwide through the forms of official culture helped spread simplistic views, which were relatively successful among some ranks of the population. The tension between these two directions can still be perceived at the level of society as a whole. A strong editorial activity took place during the Communist regime. With the purpose of educating the large masses of peoples, a huge number of books were published. Generally, a book was never published in an edition of less than 50, copies. Libraries appeared in every village, and almost all were kept up to date with the newest books published. Also, due to low prices, almost everyone could afford to have their own collection of books at home.
The negative part was that all the books were heavily censored. Also, due to rationing in every aspect of life, the quality of the printing and the paper also was very low, and the books, therefore, degraded easily. During this period, there was a significant increase in the number of theatres, as they appeared even in the smallest towns. Many new establishments were built, and in the big cities they became important landmarks, such as the building of the National Theatre of Bucharest , situated right in the middle of the city, immediately adjacent to Romania's kilometre zero. In the smaller towns, there existed the so-called "Worker's Theatre", a semi-professional institution.
Partly due to the lack of other entertainment venues, the theatre was highly popular, and the number of actors increased. All of the theatres had a stable, state-funded budget. Again, however, the drawback was the heavy control imposed on them by the regime: censorship was ever-present, and only ideologically-accepted plays were allowed. More progressive theatres managed to survive in some remote cities that became favorite destinations for young actors, but they generally had only a local audience. Cinemas evolved the same way as the theatres; sometimes, the same establishment served both purposes. Movies were very popular, and from the s, foreign films started becoming quite widespread. Western films, when shown, were heavily censored: entire sections were cut, and dialogue was translated only using ideologically accepted words.
Domestic or "friendly" foreign productions constituted the bulk of films in cinemas. During this period, cinematography started to develop in Romania, and the first successful short films were made based on Caragiale's plays. Financed by the government, during the s, a whole industry developed at Buftea , a town close to Bucharest , and some films, especially gangster, Western-genre , and historical movies, were very well received by the public. The most prolific director was Sergiu Nicolaescu , and probably the most-acclaimed actor from that period was Amza Pellea. A consequence of the communist attitude towards the bourgeoisie elites in general, was the creation, for the first time in Romania's history, of a diaspora.
Another member of the diaspora who distinguished himself was the philosopher and logician Stephane Lupasco. The communist rule in Romania, unlike most of the other countries of the Eastern bloc, permanently repudiated the Romanians who had left their country and labeled them as traitors to the motherland. It was only after that the process of regaining the values of the diaspora and of reintegrating its personalities into this country's culture could be started seriously, a process marked in its turn by tension and disagreements.
Well-known Romanian musicians outside of Romania during this period include conductors Sergiu Celibidache —the main conductor at the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and later of Munich Philharmonic Orchestra —and Constantin Silvestri , main conductor at the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra. Gheorghe Zamfir was a virtuoso of the pan pipes and made this instrument known to a modern worldwide audience, and was also a composer or interpreter for a great number of movies.
Composer and architect Iannis Xenakis was born in Romania and spent his childhood there. George Emil Palade , a cell biologist and a teacher, became the first Romanian to receive the Nobel Prize , winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for describing the structure and function of organelles in cells. The fall of soviet-style communism in elated the cultural world, but the experience hasn't been an easy one due to problems in the transition period and the adoption of a free market economy. The discontinuation of state and political control of culture brought about the long dreamt freedom of expression, but, at the same time, the state subsidies also stopped, and Romania's culture was seriously affected by the side-effects of the incipient, still very imperfect, free-market economy and by inadequate material resources.
Culture has had to cope with a variety of problems, one of them being a shift in people's interest towards other areas such as the press and television. The search for a new cultural policy, relying on decentralization, seems to prevail now. People speak about a crisis of culture in this country, but if there is a crisis of culture, it is only at an institutional level. After the fall of communism in , there was an almost immediate explosion of publication of books previously censored by the regime. Books were published in huge numbers per edition, sales were high, and a great number of publishing houses appeared. However, this soon reached a saturation point, and publishing houses began to decline due to a combination of bad management, a rapid drop in sales, and the absence of subsidies.
Many closed after publishing only a few titles; some changed their profile and started printing commercial literature — mainly translations — and the state-owned publishers entered a "state of lethargy". The latter survived due to state financing, but their publishing activity diminished. Despite this, some publishing houses managed to survive and develop by implementing market-oriented policies, and by improving the quality and overall appearance of the books they published. Some publishing houses developed their own chains or bookstores, and also other new, privately owned bookstore chains opened, replacing the old state-owned ones.
Culturally oriented newsprint periodicals followed a similar trajectory of boom and bust. A few have survived and managed to raise their quality and to maintain a critical spirit despite the hardships they encountered. Dilema Veche Old Dilemma and Revista 22 Magazine 22 remain respected forces in Romanian culture, with Observator Cultural a lesser, but also respected, weekly paper.
Many new young writers appeared, but due to financial constraints, only those who have gained a strong reputation could get the financial backing to publish their works. The Writers's Union , which should, in principle, support these writers' efforts, hasn't undergone much change since , and there is much controversy surrounding its activity and purpose. The ties with the Romanian diaspora are now very strong, and even foreign-language Romanian writers like Andrei Codrescu who now writes primarily in English are very popular. Horia-Roman Patapievici. Romanian theatre also suffered from economic hardships, and its popularity decreased drastically due to the increased popularity of television and other entertainment channels.
Some theatres survived due to their prestige and some continued subsidies ; others survived through good management, investing in themselves, and earning a steady audience through the high quality of their productions. Experimental or independent theatres appeared and are quite popular in university cities. Uniter — The Romanian Theatres Association — gives yearly awards to the best performances. Due to the lack of funds, Romanian film-making suffered heavily in the s; even now, as of , a lot of controversy surrounds state aid for movies. Besides domestic production, Romania became a favorite destination for international producers due to the low cost of filming there, and big investments have been made in large studios. The number of cultural events held yearly in Romania has increased over the past few years.
Some sporadic events like the " Bucharest CowParade " have been well received, and yearly events and festivals have continually attracted interest. Medieval festivals held in cities in Transylvania, which combine street theatre with music and battle reenactments to create a very lively atmosphere, are some of the most popular events. An important event took place in when the city of Sibiu was, along with Luxembourg , the European Capital of Culture.
The most striking thing about Romanian culture is the strong folk traditions which have survived to this day due to the rural character of the Romanian communities, which has resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture. Romania's rich folk traditions have been nourished by many sources, some of which predate the Roman occupation. Traditional folk arts include wood carving , ceramics , weaving , and embroidery of costumes, household decorations, dance , and richly varied folk music.
Ethnographers have tried to collect in the last two centuries as many elements as possible: the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Romanian Academy are currently the main institutions which systematically organize the data and continue the research. The wood used to be the main construction material, and heavily ornamented wooden objects were common in old houses. Linen was the most common material for clothing, combined with wool during the winter or colder periods.
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