✪✪✪ Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy

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Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy

Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy Atticus Courage Quotes the mother of Oinomaos by Ares, the god of war. A 3-part spinoff Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy on Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy adventures of Cixi. October 2, Well, they're a metaphor, representing more than Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy literal role as curtains. The novel is set in the fictitious English town of Middlemarch during —, and follows several distinct, intersecting stories with a large Characteristics Of Benjamin Franklins American of characters. If a character of a certain race is stereotyped and mocked, the meaning of this may change depending Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy the race cultural awareness definition the author. Moreover, her methodical approach to her work drives Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy frustrated Wilkins Case Study: Operation Paperclip share Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy confidential research to Crick and Watson, displaying males inherent distrust and disrespect Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy women. Want to know more?

Troy vs. Troy: The Odyssey

Schliemann believed that the literary events of the works of Homer could be verified archaeologically, and he decided to use his wealth to locate it. Together with Calvert and others, Schliemann began by excavating a trench across the mound of Hisarlik to the depth of the settlements, today called "Schliemann's Trench. He proposed that the second layer, Troy II, corresponded to the city of legend, though later research has shown that it predated the Mycenaean era by several hundred years. Some of the most notable artifacts found by Schliemann are known as Priam's Treasure , after the legendary Trojan king. Schliemann's legacy remains controversial due to his excavation methods, which included removing features he considered insignificant without first studying and documenting them.

Carl Blegen , professor at the University of Cincinnati , managed the site — These archaeologists, though following Schliemann's lead, added a professional approach not available to Schliemann. He showed that there were at least nine cities. In his research, Blegen came to a conclusion that Troy's nine levels could be further divided into forty-six sublevels, [49] which he published in his main report. Possible evidence of a battle was found in the form of bronze arrowheads and fire-damaged human remains buried in layers dated to the early 12th century BC.

Korfmann proposed that the location of the city indicated a commercially oriented economy that would have been at the center of a vibrant trade between the Black Sea, Aegean, Anatolian and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Kolb disputed this thesis, calling it "unfounded" in a paper. He argued that archaeological evidence shows that economic trade during the Late Bronze Age was quite limited in the Aegean region compared with later periods in antiquity. On the other hand, the Eastern Mediterranean economy was more active during this time, allowing for commercial cities to develop only in the Levant.

Kolb also noted the lack of evidence for trade with the Hittite Empire. This discovery led to a major reinterpretation of the site, which had previously been regarded as a small aristocratic residence rather than a major settlement. In summer , the excavations continued under the direction of Korfmann's colleague Ernst Pernicka, with a new digging permit. In , an international team made up of cross-disciplinary experts led by William Aylward, an archaeologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was to carry out new excavations.

Troy I-V predate writing and thus study of them falls into the category of prehistoric archaeology. However, Troy emerges into protohistory in the Late Bronze Age, as records mentioning the city begin to appear at other sites. These correspondences were first proposed in by Emil Forrer , who also suggested that the name Ahhiyawa corresponds to the Homeric term for the Greeks, Achaeans. These proposals were primarily motivated by linguistic similiarities, since "Taruisa" is a plausible match for the Greek name "Troia" and "Wilusa" likewise for the Greek "Wilios" later "Ilios".

Subsequent research on Hittite geography has made these identifications more secure, though not all scholars regard them as firmly established. Wilusa first appears in Hittite records around BC, when it was one of the twenty-two states of the Assuwa Confederation which unsuccessfully attempted to oppose the Hittite Empire. Circumstantial evidence raises the possibility that the rebellion was supported by the Ahhiyawa. Texts from this period mention two kings named Kukkunni and Alaksandu who maintained peaceful relations with the Hittites even as other states in the area did not.

Wilusan soldiers may have served in the Hittite army during the Battle of Kadesh. A bit later, Wilusa seems to have experienced the political turmoil suffered by many of its neighbors. References in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter and Tawagalawa letter suggest that a Wilusan king either rebelled or was deposed. This turmoil may have been related to the exploits of Piyamaradu , a Western Anatolian warlord who toppled other pro-Hittite rulers while acting on behalf the Ahhiyawa. However, Piyamaradu is never explicitly identified as the culprit and certain features of the text suggest that he was not.

In popular writing, these anecdotes have been interpreted as evidence for a historical kernel in myths of the Trojan War. However, scholars have not found historical evidence for any particular event from the legends, and the Hittite documents do not suggest that Wilusa-Troy was ever attacked by Greeks-Ahhiyawa themselves. In BC, the Persian king Xerxes sacrificed 1, cattle at the sanctuary of Athena Ilias while marching through the Hellespontine region towards Greece. Athens liberated the so-called Actaean cities including Ilion and enrolled these communities in the Delian League.

Athenian influence in the Hellespont waned following the oligarchic coup of , and in that year the Spartan general Mindaros emulated Xerxes by likewise sacrificing to Athena Ilias. From c. In , the Spartan general Dercylidas expelled the Greek garrison at Ilion who were controlling the city on behalf of the Lampsacene dynasts during a campaign which rolled back Persian influence throughout the Troad. Ilion remained outside the control of the Persian satrapal administration at Dascylium until the Peace of Antalcidas in — In this period of renewed Persian control c.

Antigonus Monophthalmus took control of the Troad in and created the new city of Antigoneia Troas which was a synoikism of the cities of Skepsis , Kebren , Neandreia , Hamaxitos , Larisa , and Kolonai. The day-to-day running of the synedrion , especially in relation to its finances, was left to a college of five agonothetai , on which no city ever had more than one representative. This system of equal rather than proportional representation ensured that no one city could politically dominate the koinon. The festival brought huge numbers of pilgrims to Ilion for the duration of the festival as well as creating an enormous market the panegyris which attracted traders from across the region.

In the period —, Ilion and the Troad were part of the kingdom of Lysimachus , who during this time helped Ilion synoikize several nearby communities, thus expanding the city's population and territory. In or soon after Ilion passed a long decree lavishly honouring Antiochus in order to cement their relationship with him. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople , which became a bishopric in the Roman province Hellespontus civil Diocese of Asia , but declined gradually in the Byzantine era. The city was destroyed by Sulla 's rival, the Roman general Fimbria , in 85 BC following an eleven-day siege. Ilion reciprocated this act of generosity by instituting a new civic calendar which took 85 BC as its first year.

In the 80s BC, Roman publicani illegally levied taxes on the sacred estates of Athena Ilias, and the city was required to call on L. Julius Caesar for restitution; while in 80 BC, the city suffered an attack by pirates. Julius Caesar was once again required to arbitrate, this time reforming the festival so that it would be less of a financial burden. Julius Caesar, and the family's claim that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan prince Aeneas and therefore shared kinship with the Ilians. Soon after work on the theatre was completed in 12—11 BC, Melanippides dedicated a statue Augustus in the theatre to record this benefaction. From the 4th century AD until the Byzantine era, Ilium was a suffragan of the provincial capital's Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cyzicus.

Several bishops of Troy are historically documented, including one named Orion who participated in the Council of Nicaea in AD. Another named Leucadius was among the heretical bishops who embraced Arianism. In modern times, Michel d'Herbigny was appointed titular bishop of Ilium. Several others subsequently held the office, though it has been vacant since It contains square kilometres 53 sq mi to include Troy and its vicinity, centered on Troy. In a Term Development Revision Plan was applied to the park.

Its intent was to develop the park into a major tourist site. These latter were concentrated in the village of Tevfikiye, which shares Troy Ridge with Troy. Public access to the ancient site is along the road from the vicinity of the museum in Tevfikiye to the east side of Hisarlik. Some parking is available. Typically visitors come by bus, which disembarks its passengers into a large plaza ornamented with flowers and trees and some objects from the excavation.

In its square is a large wooden horse monument, with a ladder and internal chambers for use of the public. Bordering the square is the gate to the site. The public passes through turnstiles. Admission is usually not free. Within the site, the visitors tour the features on dirt roads or for access to more precipitous features on railed boardwalks. There are many overlooks with multilingual boards explaining the feature. Most are outdoors, but a permanent canopy covers the site of an early megaron and wall.

A design contest for the architecture had been won by Yalin Mimarlik in The cube-shaped building with extensive underground galleries holds more than 40, portable artifacts, of which are on display. Artifacts were moved here from a few other former museums in the region. The range is the entire prehistoric Troad. Displays are multi-lingual. In many cases the original contexts are reproduced. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Homeric ancient city in northwest Asia Minor. For other uses, see Troy disambiguation. Further information: Homeric Question and Historicity of the Iliad. Troy II. Troy IX Odeon. Troy IX Roman bath. Further information: Wilusa and Ahhiyawa. Main article: Troy Museum. If we are asked whether it be not a legend embodying portions of historical matter London: J. These probably included Birytis , Gentinos , and Sigeion: J. Cook, The Troad Oxford This may have been punishment for Sigeion resisting Lysimachus in Diodorus Winkler, Martin M ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN Troy or Ilios or Wilios is most probably identical with Wilusa or Truwisa Historical dictionary of the Hittites. Metuchen, N. J: Scarecrow Press.

Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Homer and the Odyssey. Oxford University Press. The Trojans and their Neighbours. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Perseus Digital Library. Shopes, Linda; Hamilton, Paula eds. Oral History and Public Memories. Anatolian Studies. JSTOR Daily Sabah History. In Cline, Eric ed. Greek Art and Archaeology. Troy and Its Remains. Benjamin Blom, Inc. The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. ISSN In Mellink, Machteld ed.

Bryn Mawr Commentaries. University of Chicago. Clarke, and Major Rennell. Retrieved 28 December Troja und Ilion. Troy; excavations conducted by the University of Cincinnati, — Princeton University Press. American Journal of Archaeology. Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 6 March Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved 6 May Hurriyet daily News. The Ahhiyawa Texts. Robert, Monnaies antiques en Troade Paris 18— Temple: C. Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 1 February Daily Sabah. Retrieved Allen, Susan Heuck July Allen, Susan Heuck Berkeley: University of California Press. Bauer, Susan Wise Blegen, C. Troy and the Trojans. The Ages of Homer. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Efkleidou, Kalliope Cincinnati, Ohio: University of Cincinnati. Kayan, İlhan Troia and the Troad-Scientific Approaches. Natural Science in Archaeology. Berlin: Springer. Korfmann, Manfred Latacz, Joachim Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schliemann, Heinrich The city and country of the Trojans. Watkins, Calvert In Mellink, Machteld J. Wood, Michael In Search of the Trojan War. Troy at Wikipedia's sister projects. History of Anatolia. Timeline of the Ancient Near East. Master Reading and Creating. Reading and Comparing Essays.

Now quite sure how to nail your text response essays? Then download our free mini-guide, where we break down the art of writing the perfect text-response essay into three comprehensive steps. Click below to get your own copy today! Then you're not alone! If you need to feel prepared and confident before your next assessment, learn how to nail your next Comparative essay with our best-selling, 5-star rated study guide.

Although it appears on criteria sheets, many students never really understand the term metalanguage. Strangely, it is something that is rarely addressed in classrooms. While the word may be foreign to you, rest assured that metalanguage is not an entirely new concept you have to learn. How come? Because you have been unknowingly using metalanguage since the very beginning of high school. It's a word that is more and more frequently thrown around as you get more advanced in high school. And, it's something that becomes tremendously important in your final year of high school, because the more you include metalanguage discussion in your essays, the more intricate your discussion becomes and the more unique it also becomes.

So, instead of maybe using the word, "He was sad ", we might say something like, "He felt sorrowful ". The choice in words changes the meaning that is interpreted by the reader, just slightly, but there is still a difference. So, when it comes to studying texts or reading articles, and trying to analyze what the author is trying to do, we look at metalanguage as a way to help give us insight into the ideas that they're trying to portray. The simplest way to explain this is to focus on part 3 of the English exam — Language Analysis. As you can see, the word 'foreshadows' pushes us in a new direction.

Rather than just saying what has already happened or telling your teacher or examiner something that they already know, it forces you to actually analyze what's in front of you and to offer your own unique interpretation of why this metalanguage or why this technique has been used. On the Waterfront , Elia Kazan. This student has actually given us an analysis of why animal motifs are used. And that is to highlight how Medea defies natural norms, because of her inhuman and bestial nature. As indicated earlier, you should be familiar with many, if not all the terms mentioned above.

Take note that some metalanguage terms are specific to a writing form , such as camera angle for films. If you need help learning new terms, we have you covered - be sure to check out our metalanguage word banks for books and our metalanguage wordbank for films. As you discuss themes or characters, you should try and weave metalanguage throughout your body paragraphs. The purpose of this criteria is to demonstrate your ability to understand how the author uses language to communicate his or her meaning. Hey guys, welcome back to Lisa's Study Guides. Today, I'm really excited to talk to you about metalanguage. Have you guys ever heard of metalanguage before? So, let's find out exactly what is metalanguage. Simply put, metalanguage just means language that analyses language.

When authors write anything, we make certain decisions when it comes to writing. So, instead of maybe using the word, "He was sad", we might say something like, "He felt sorrowful". So, when it comes to studying texts or reading articles and trying to analyse what the author is trying to do, we look at metalanguage as a way to help give us insight into the ideas that they're trying to portray. Metalanguage comes in really handy, especially if you're somebody who struggles with retelling the story - I have a video on how to avoid retelling the story , which you can watch.

Metalanguage essentially takes you to the next level. It prevents you from just saying what happened, and forces you into actually looking at how the ideas and themes are developed by the author through the words that they choose to use. So, let's have a look at a couple of examples to give you a better idea. I'm going to show you two examples. One uses metalanguage and one doesn't, and you'll see how a massive difference in how the student understands the text is really clear. In the first scene of All About Eve , Mankiewicz emphasizes Eve's sorrowful expression as she accepts her award.

In the first scene of All About Eve , Mankiewicz foreshadows Eve's sinful and regretful actions, as a sorrowful expression is emphasized as she accepts her award. As you can see, as soon as we put in the word foreshadows, it pushes us in a new direction. Rather than just saying what has already happened or telling your teacher or examiner something that they already know, it forces you to actually analyse what's in front of you and to offer your own unique interpretation of why this metalanguage or why this technique has been used.

So, in this case, it's foreshadowing. In Medea , Euripides commonly refers to animals when describing Medea's actions and temperament. In Medea , the motif of animals emphasizes the inhuman and bestial nature of Medea, highlighting how she defies natural norms. See how, in the first example, it was really just telling you what we might already know through just reading the book, but when it comes to the second example, this student has actually given us an analysis of why animal motifs are used. So, those are some examples of metalanguage.

There are so many more different types of metalanguage out there Summary 2. Historical Context 3. Character Analysis 4. Theme Analysis 5. Sample Essay Topics 6. Essay Topic Breakdown. Year of Wonders is set in the small English village of Eyam in , as the town struggles through a deadly outbreak of the bubonic plague. While the characters and events are fictional, author Geraldine Brooks based the novel on the true story of Eyam, whose inhabitants, at the urging of their vicar, courageously decided to quarantine themselves to restrict the spread of the contagion and protect other rural townships. The experience of the plague provides Brooks fertile ground to develop characters that illustrate the extremes of human nature ; displaying the dignity or depravity, self-sacrifice or self-interest that people are capable of when faced with terror, pain and the unknown.

She explores the consequences of a catastrophe on an isolated, insular and deeply religious community and we see characters exhibit tireless dedication and heroism, or succumb to depression, exploitation and sometimes murderous depravity. The novel illustrates that adversity can bring out the best and worst of people and that faith can be challenged and eroded.

The novel explores how crises affect human behaviour, beliefs and values and reveal the real character of a community under pressure. Our job while studying this text is to consider how all the different responses to an external crisis contribute to an analysis of human nature. Year of Wonders belongs to the genre of historical fiction meaning it is fictional but based on historical events and aims to capture and present the historical context accurately. The context of Year of Wonders is important to understand as it informs a lot of the division and instability in Eyam during the isolation and crisis of the plague we explain in more detail why context is so important in Context and Authorial Intent in VCE English. This all happened during the lifetime of the Eyam villagers presented in the novel and the recent religious upheaval in Britain was beginning to influence the conservative and puritan congregation of Eyam as the old puritan rector was replaced with Anglican vicar Michael Mompellion.

The tension between the puritans and Anglicans is evident early in the novel and is exacerbated by the arrival of the plague, causing further internal fission. The 17th century also marked the beginning of modern medicine and the Age of Enlightenment. During the Enlightenment, people began to privilege reason and sensory evidence from the material world over biblical orthodoxy as the primary sources of knowledge. The Enlightenment advanced ideals such as progress, liberty, tolerance, egalitarianism and the scientific method. However, we also see the limited reaches of the Enlightenment in characters who succumb to superstition or self-flagellation when the plague arrives. This was a time when religious faith was frequently challenged and redefined.

The novel is narrated in the first person by protagonist Anna Frith. Anna is a compelling protagonist and narrator because she is part of the ordinary, working-class life of the village, but also has access to the gentry in her work for the Mompellions, meaning readers can see how the plague affected all social groups. At the beginning of the novel, Anna is in many ways very conventional.

However, it is revealed early that she has progressive views on class and morality and as the novel progresses, the extraordinary circumstances of the plague evoke in her heroism and courage. Brooks notes, Anna 'shrugs off the social and religious mores that would keep a weaker woman in her place'. Generally, Mompellion is altruistic and open-minded : softening strict class divisions, combatting superstition and embracing a scientific approach to the plague. Mompellion persuades the townspeople to go into self-imposed quarantine to prevent the spread of the plague. His personal charisma, powerful rhetoric and indefatigable dedication to his work mean he can motivate and inspire his parishioners.

While progressive on issues such as class divisions, Mompellion is conservative — bordering on fanatic — when it comes to female sexuality. When his beloved wife Elinor dies, it is revealed that Mompellion denied her sexual intimacy for their entire marriage to punish her for the premarital affair and abortion she had as a teenager. By the end of the novel, Anna and Elinor are confidantes and friends and their friendship arguably forms one of the strongest emotional cores of the novel, sustaining both women through enormous strain and hardship.

Elinor teaches Anna to read and seems not to notice or care about their different social strata, treating everyone equally. Elinor came from a very wealthy family and initially had little practical knowledge of the hardships and necessities of life. During the plague, she confronts pain, suffering and true sacrifice. Because of her beauty, fragility and generosity, the whole town — and especially Anna — view her as a paragon of virtue and the embodiment of innocence. However, Elinor reveals that as a teenager she had a premarital relationship that resulted in an illegitimate pregnancy which she ended through abortion. Elinor considers herself to be permanently marked by sin and is plagued by the guilt of her adolescent mistakes, but her commitment to atone through service and working to help others is admirable.

Both women live on the margins of society , as their knowledge of herbal medicines and power to heal certain ailments causes fear and suspicion. Additionally, Anys further alienates the villagers by having conspicuous affairs with married village men. When the plague breaks out, Anys and Mem are murdered by a mob of hysterical townspeople , who believe they are witches responsible for the plague. This episode shows the power and acute danger of superstition and hysteria. Brooks depicts them as unsympathetic and unforgivable , if understandable, villains as they both seek to profit off the heavy misfortune of others. Joss abused Anna greatly throughout her childhood, and while she manages to forgive him due to the suffering of his own youth, when he cruelly exploits villagers in his position as gravedigger, Anna finds his actions irredeemable.

As gravedigger, Joss charged exorbitant fees from desperate people to bury their dead, regularly stole from the beleaguered families and attempted to bury a wealthy plague sufferer alive to loot his home. Aphra is similarly amoral and greedy. After the death of her husband and children, Aphra becomes completely deranged, dismembering and refusing to bury the rotting corpses of her children and eventually murdering Elinor. The Bradford family are arrogant and pretentious. When the plague arrived in Eyam they also proved themselves self-serving and opportunistic , exploiting their wealth and status as part of the gentry to flee Eyam instead of enduring the quarantine with the rest of the village.

They provide a foil to the Mompellions , who are of similar status and are newcomers to Eyam with fewer historical ties and thus expectations of loyalty. The two upper-class families provide directly opposite responses to the crisis, with Brooks clearly condemning the cowardice and selfishness exhibited by the Bradfords. Year of Wonders depicts a small and isolated community that experiences intense adversity from the plague and, because of their self-imposed quarantine, are additionally isolated from the stabilising forces of broader society.

These factors cause the people of Eyam to increasingly abandon their social conventions and descend into chaos and Brooks raises the question of whether people can live harmoniously without a strong social code. She suggests that societal cohesion is the result of social pressure rather than innate to our nature. Anna and Elinor are examples of characters who respond to the crisis of the plague, amongst other real hardships, with a steadfast commitment to their principles. Their innate charity and work ethic are only strengthened and bolstered by the demands of the plague. However, not all residents of Eyam respond to the plague with courage and decency.

Many descend into fear and hysteria, while others become malevolent and exploitative in their efforts to protect themselves. The Bonts and the Bradfords are examples of people who act with appalling selfishness, yet Brooks is careful to illustrate them as cruel and self-serving even before the plague. Thus, Brooks appears to argue that our actions under intense duress are intensifications of our true nature.

However, the plague makes this worldview unsupportable as the unremitting suffering of plague victims, depicted through gory and vividly gruesome descriptions , demonstrates that their suffering is not commensurate with their sin and that no one can deserve this fate. Her two young sons are early victims of the plague and their youth and innocence mean it is impossible to justify their deaths as punishment for sin.

This leads her to use science and medicine to ameliorate pain. However, the scientific method and worldview were only in its very nascent form and most people held a firm belief in supernatural intervention, making the townspeople prone to superstition and, in their ignorance and fear, murderous mob hysteria. Women in Eyam had lived highly circumscribed and restricted lives until the crisis of the plague disrupted the social order. The behaviour and speech of women were heavily policed and punished. In a particularly horrifying episode, Joss puts his wife in a muzzle and parades her through the village after she publicly criticises him. While Joss is undeniably an all-round bad guy, his misogyny cannot be dismissed as singular to him. Even Mompellion, an altruistic and in some ways quite progressive man, takes a very harsh stance on female sexuality.

Although he preached to adulterous male villagers such as Jakob Merrill that 'as God made us lustful so he understands and forgives', he denied Elinor forgiveness for her teenage sexual relationship and was unfathomably rageful when he discovers Jane Martin having sex outside of marriage. However, Brooks criticises the taboo on female sexuality and shows that sexual desire is an awakening and liberating force for Anna, twice helping her to come out of deep depressions and reminding her that life has joy and meaning. There are strong feminist undertones throughout the novel as each female character exhibits strengths that the male characters do not and challenges the limitations of her role, expressing desire for more personal autonomy and agency.

From the beginning of the novel, Anna admires the sexual freedom of Anys Gowdie and the ability of Elinor to unreservedly pursue her intellectual interests. During the plague, Anna finds herself eschewing her old role and social position and assuming many challenging and indispensable responsibilities that would have been unthinkable for any woman — especially a young single working-class woman — before the plague. The text explores both the power of religious leaders to influence public opinion and the ability of strong and courageous individuals to rise to positions of respect and authority in a crisis. His clear dedication to his work and parishioners inspires trust in the community, and although Mompellion comes to doubt his judgement, it is undeniable that his strong leadership and assumption of huge responsibility saved countless lives.

Anna also emerges as an unofficial leader; she becomes an essential figure and the voice of reason in Eyam. We see examples of powerful leadership in the novel, but we also see how an overwhelming crisis can lead to a shortage of clear leadership and expose flaws in existing governing systems. Eyam relied on its gentry Colonel Bradford and vicar Michael Mompellion to adjudicate and administer justice.

However, on the advent of the plague, the Bradfords fled from Eyam and Mompellion became overwhelmed by work, leaving the townspeople to frequently administer their own justice through group tribunals or vigilante action. Additionally, the extreme circumstances of the plague mean the town must deal with crimes it has never faced before and is unsure how to punish. Brooks explores what it means to achieve justice when the only means available are faulty.

There are many examples of miscarriages of justice which forces readers to think about the necessity of a strong, fair and prompt judicial system and the weaknesses inherent in these institutions. The starting point of any theme-based prompt is the ideas, and while this prompt characterises the novel as one essentially about courage, it is more generally exploring the theme of how people responded to the various challenges of the plague. There is also an entire supporting cast of characters who individually display neither extreme courage nor cowardice but who muddle through a terrible situation with numb apathy. There is also the opportunity to define what courage means here — after all, the decision to isolate themselves within the boundaries of Eyam took immense courage from all the villagers, who knew full well that they would inevitably be exposed to the deadly contagion.

Paragraph 1: [Agree] The novel is grounded in and revolves around the initial courageous decision of the villagers of Eyam to quarantine themselves and risk their own lives to protect others from the spread of the bubonic plague. Paragraph 2: [Agree] The individuals who displayed courage, hope and conviction in the face of acute personal adversity demonstrate the enormous power of courage to steel us through a crisis. Paragraph 3: [Partial disagree] However, Year of Wonders shows how adversity can provoke extremes of human behaviour and is thus also a story of human failings under immense pressure, with many characters motivated by cowardice and self-interested opportunism.

In both texts, we see racial systems that take power away from Bla c k people. In the play, settler-colonialism is a big one. This trickles into contemporary institutions widely understood patterns, rules or structures within society which perpetuate these dynamics of race and power, such as the police and the media. Oppression is similarly maintained in The Longest Memory , where physical violence, and even just the threat of possible physical violence, is used to enslave African Americans.

Plus, all of this racial violence was justified by the socio-economic interests of enslavers. Both texts see Bla c k people disempowered by a range of white institutions. On the other hand, family and the wider community are depicted as a galvanising or healing force in both texts. Depictions of families in projections of photographs also outline how joy and solidarity can be drawn from community. In the novel, family ties are also important. Both texts show how memory and grief are significant burdens for Bla c k people and operate at multiple dimensions. It can go from highly expressive to numb in moments. He feels extremely guilty and only after Chapel dies does he realise why Chapel disagreed with him so stubbornly in life.

Both texts offer ideas about what the fight against racism might look like, but at times these ideas are more different than similar. In The 7 Stages of Grieving , the main struggle is to be heard and understood. In the play and in real life even, we can see how the media is stacked against First Nations peoples, so their fight is about cutting through the bias and making sure they are fairly represented. In The Longest Memory , the fight against slavery is portrayed quite differently.

In a scenario where physical violence was used the way it was in order to oppress, self-emancipation was seen by many as the only path out. This gave them a destination, as well as hope. The other thing that the texts diverge on is the relationship between parents and children. In the play, family is consistently shown to provide support and community. As the woman speaks about her father and brother, the unconditional love and support between them is palpable. However, the novel depicts a bit more conflict— Whitechapel argued with Chapel based on his lived experience, and the many young people he had seen be killed for trying to free themselves.

However, Chapel was far more committed to freedom than to survival. The woman recounts his death in a factual, impersonal style as if reading a court report. She describes how the police pursued and arrested Yocke after he went out drinking with a group of friends, and how he was detained and taken to the watchhouse. The woman breaks into bursts of emotion toward the end of the scene. While most of the play deals with issues that are universal and timeless for First Nations peoples, this scene looks at a specific real event. After all, how exactly was Yocke dead upon arriving at the watchhouse? How badly must the police have mishandled him for that to have happened? The institution of policing has been unaccountable and violent for decades, at least, and something desperately needs to change.

He ultimately leaves feeling a little more convinced by the perspectives of his peers. Well, in both scenes, white men get away with murdering a Black man, and it comes down to socio-economic and institutional power. In this chapter, Mr Whitechapel and his fellow enslavers all inherit significant wealth and extremely prejudiced attitudes from their fathers, and this creates not only pressure but also a financial incentive, to conform to the system of slavery. He touches on the possibility of abolition , but this is seen as impossible—certainly, none of these men want to lose their power.

Now it's your turn! Give these essay topics a go. If you're interested in reading a 50 study scorer's completed essays based off these 4 essay topics, along with annotations so you can understand his thinking process, then I would highly recommend checking out LSG's Killer Comparative Guide: 7 Stages of Grieving and The Longest Memory. What do Aunty Grace and Chapel illustrate about the complexities of belonging to a racial minority? Compare how the narrative structures of The 7 Stages of Grieving and The Longest Memory enhance their storytelling effect. Learn more about this technique in this video:. In each text, we see institutions and structures which are violent and harmful—from the play, police and the media, and from the novel, the economy itself. However, these institutions are upheld in different ways, and require different mechanisms of change—while the play emphasises grieving and unity, the novel focuses more on emancipation.

P1: Starting with The 7 Stages of Grieving , social change is required at the institutional level. Reconciliation needs to include Aboriginal voices. P2: With The Longest Memory , social change is required across the economy that depends on enslaving people and stealing their labour, while others have an economic interest in the status quo. P3: Because of this, change seems more possible in the play, and we start seeing it happen towards the end, as the ice thaws and people, Bla c k and white, march across the bridge together. P4: On the other hand, emancipation is seen as the only path to change in the novel, as intergenerational social pressures among the enslaving class in the South are insurmountable.

This post will take you through some definitions , give you some examples and show you how you can use them in essays too. A theme is an idea or a subject that an author wants to explore. Themes usually appear in interactions: for example, a parent reuniting with a child might evoke the theme of parenthood or family, an experience of discrimination might evoke the theme of prejudice or racism, a character facing a difficult choice might evoke the theme of morality or conflict, and so on.

As you might be able to see, themes can require us to read between the lines because they are usually implied. A motif is something a bit more specific. This repetition of motifs helps to create structure for a text - it can tether parts of the story to or around a central image. You can think of symbols as motifs minus the repetition. They can simply tell us more about a character or situation in that instant, at that specific time, rather than being a parallel or recurring throughout a text. Themes usually come across in interactions , and a possible first step to identifying them is thinking about if an interaction is good or bad, and why. For example:. The theme we might identify here is duty. The film might suggest that we have a duty to look out for our neighbours without sacrificing their privacy or to do our part to keep the neighbourhood safe from potential criminals.

The themes here might be society, wealth and class. This interaction shows us where these characters really stand with regard to these categories or ideas. Try to identify the themes as you go , or maintain lists of interactions and events for different themes. They also provide a great foundation for essay planning since you can draw on events across the text to explore a certain theme. While themes can generally appear in texts without the author needing to make too much of an effort, motifs and symbols have to be used really consciously. A lot of interactions might just be natural to the plot, but the author has to take extra care to insert a symbol or motif into the story. Symbols in particular often appear at turning points : the relationship between two characters might take a turn, an important sacrifice might be made or perhaps someone crosses a point of no return - all of these are potential plot points for the author to include symbols.

For motifs , look more for repetition. Symbols and motifs can be more subtle than themes, but they will also help to set your essay apart if you find a way to include them. To learn more about text construction, have a read of What Is Metalanguage? Maddened by grief at the murder of his friend Patroclus, Achilles desecrates the body of Hector as revenge. To learn more, head over to our Ransom Study Guide which covers themes, characters, and more.

Set in the weeks leading up to and after the infamous death of Princess Diana in , The Queen captures the private moments of the monarchy's grief and loss , and Queen Elizabeth II's inner conflict as she attempts to keep her private and public affairs separate. The film opens with Tony Blair's "landslide victory" in the election as the "youngest Prime Minister in almost two hundred years", preempting viewers of the "radical modernisation" that's to come as he takes the reign.

Juxtaposed with Blair's introduction is the stoic Queen Elizabeth II, residing in Buckingham Palace serenaded by bagpipes, in a ritual unchanged since Queen Victoria, immediately establishing the entrenched traditional values she represents. As days ensue with no public response from the Royal Family, the British people grow in disdain towards the authority , demanding a more empathetic response. Despite heavy resistance from the Queen, he eventually encourages her to surrender old royal protocols and adopt a more modern approach to meet public expectation: to fly the flag at half-mast, hold a public funeral, and publicly grieve for the loss of Princess Diana — all in all, to show the people that the monarchy cares.

Together, Ransom and The Queen showcase the challenges involved in leadership roles : the inner conflict that leaves these individuals torn between their private and public demands. More on this in the next section. In Ransom , we learn of the familial sacrifice Priam has needed to make as a leader. It is only when Priam and the Queen detach themselves from their traditional roles that we see a change for the better in both of their personal journeys. Both texts show how parenthood can lead to a more enriched human experience. Malouf finally portrays Priam as a happy man when he has the vision to be remembered in his legacy for his role as a father first, then as a king.

Both texts explore the challenging tug and pull between upholding traditions and making way for the new. As humans, we cherish traditions because they are customs or beliefs that have been passed on from generation to generation. They have sentimental value, and by continuing on these traditions, our actions show that we respect the path our elders have laid for us. Tradition is not necessarily depicted in a negative light in either texts, but rather, shown to have its place. However, Frears and Malouf both assert that adaptability in upholding tradition is also needed in order for us to grow and develop as humans. The new is not depicted as an experience one should fear, but rather, an experience one should approach with curiosity.

To be meta, Ransom is the retelling of the Trojan events, but Malouf adds to this tradition with a fresh perspective on the story. Frears and Malouf both demonstrate that change is often propelled into possibility through the support and urging of others. His consequential journey is supported by Somax, whose ordinary everyday experiences teach Priam more about fatherhood than he had learnt as a father himself. Both texts highlight the influence those surrounding us can have on our personal change. I don't discuss this strategy in detail here, but if you're interested, check out my How To Write A Killer Comparative ebook. I use this strategy throughout my discussion of themes above and techniques in the next section. To help you get started, here are some questions to get you thinking about the similarities and differences between the two texts:.

Her face half-covered by the shadows stresses how her familial experience only occurs from afar as she prioritises her role as her highness. Internal change, at least at this point in the film, has yet to begin. The finite space he has become accustomed to now almost represents and this may be an intense interpretation a jail cell in which he as a father, as a human being, has been incarcerated in. He is ready to pursue a new identity beyond just that as a king. Both Ransom and The Queen showcase the sacrifices made by both leaders, and the rigid, almost-dehumanising expectations that are set upon them when they take reign.

Both texts encourage their audience to empathise with the leaders , for the challenges they face in their unique positions. I created an in-depth video on the first 20 or so minutes of The Queen you'd might find helpful. Have a watch and see whether you missed out on any film techniques:. So, the Part II gives me an indication that this is a quote from some way in Shakespeare's texts. So, I'm telling you these things because this is actually how I would go on to learn information about the film. I don't just automatically know for sure that it is from this particular text that Shakespeare wrote up.

So, I want to ensure that I'm right by going and having a look at Google. Quotes at the start of any film, at the start of any book, usually have importance to them and they usually should give you an insight as to what's to come. And, for me, I find when I look at this particular quote, it definitely links to the themes of leadership, of motherhood, parenthood, and of perhaps the sacrifices that the queen has needed to make in order to lead her nation. So, with this particular quote, I would write it down somewhere and keep it in mind as you're watching the remainder of the film, because you'll see those themes come to life and have a better understanding of what this quote is talking about. So, immediately, this film opens up with a news presenter talking about Tony Blair going to the election polls.

It's displayed as footage on a TV screen. This gives us insight into a couple of different things. Firstly, it gives us context. The second thing is that it's displayed on a TV and it's broadcasted by a news channel. And, as you probably know, the media, the paparazzi, and just the entire culture of representing news during this time is something that will be heavily explored throughout this film. Especially because it may or may not have led to the death of Princess Diana. So, again, contextually, it gives us an idea that around this time, the news media was quite overwhelming and omnipresent, which means that it was sort of just everywhere.

It was always around. It's sort of no different from today, but there's a reason why they establish it as an opening shot. And that's just sort of give us as viewers an understanding that the news has a big play in what's going to happen in the remainder of this film. This, again, sort of establishes that idea of change immediately at the beginning of the film, or should I say, resistance to change.

So, it's already sort of outlining the path that this film is about to take. So, from the onset with the queen, I think it's important to understand that we don't villainise her, or at least the director doesn't villainise her. He portrays her as a human being, as somebody who is in this position of the queen, which has a lot of weight upon it. And you can tell that she's all glammed up and she's fulfilling her role as the queen, but she's admitting that she envies us as everyday citizens being able to vote, to be able to have an opinion, and just go to the booths. To me, this establishes her as somebody who I empathise with, or sympathise with even.

I think this part with the music in the background and how the queen breaks the fourth wall. So, the fourth wall is basically when any character inside a film actually looks directly at the camera, at you, as the audience. And, to me, this gives me a sense of joy. It makes me feel like it's quite funny, the way that she's looking at us, especially with the So, in the next scene, we have a wide shot of Buckingham Palace, and in the background, you can hear bagpipes playing. This is something called diegetic sound. Diegetic sound is when you have sounds that come directly from the world in the film.

So, the bagpipes sort of establish this sense of tradition. Everything in the scene represents tradition. Buckingham, Palace, the flag, the bagpipes, and that as an early shot of this film sort of shows us the entrenched tradition that exists. That nothing has changed as of yet, and things as sort of going on as they've always had. Again, Frears is trying to show us the human side of the queen. And so that's why we've got the shot of her waking up in bed. She's all cuddled up and snuggled up in warm and comfy bedding. And it shows that she's vulnerable, in a way. And this is important for us as viewers, as we come to understand her inner thoughts and feelings later on. So, immediately when the queen wakes up, she has a pile of newspapers in front of her.

That adds, again, to that sense of omnipresent media. It's all around us, at least in that period of time. This time, we have archival footage. So, archival footage is footage that has been taken from that period of time and placed into this film. It adds to the film's sense of authenticity, the fact that it's based off historical offense. I really like this shot as the queen and Robin walking down the hallway to meet Tony Blair.

This is a great snapshot and a great mise-en-scene. And mise-en-scenes, basically, to me anyway, it's when you pause the screen and it's everything that's inside that shot from props, in the foreground, in the background, what the person is wearing, or what the characters are wearing. So, with this particular art, we can not only see the two characters, but we can also see everything that's in the background. And again, this really adds that sense of tradition because you've got all these paintings from probably famous people back in the day, or ancestors of the monarchy, and then you've got Robin saying he's promising a constitutional shake up, the first one in years, and the queen saying, "Oh, you mean he's going to try and modernise us?

When Robin makes the joke about Tony Blair's wife having a curtsy that's described as shallow, it's humorous, it's funny, and the queen laughs as a result. The humor that's speckled throughout this film, I think really helps to lighten up the situation, but also to again, show us that the queen is human and that she can enjoy a joke. I think this is a great snapshot as well. So, we've got the camera looking down at Tony Blair and his wife. When a camera does look down at an object or character, it gives us, as the audience, a sense that that person or character is inferior or they're not in a position of control.

And it ties in with the fact that this is Tony Blair's first day in Buckingham Palace as a prime minister and he's only just onboarding the role. So, in terms of him versus the queen or the monarchy, which is symbolised by everything around him, the setting that he is encompassed in, it shows that he really isn't the one who's playing the field here. He's not the one who is in charge. I love that we've got one of the queen's men giving them rules on what they need to do. So, we're slowly walking up the stairs towards the queen who is in position of power. So, the staircase is quite symbolic. Another important thing to know is that Mrs. Blair is actually accompanying the prime minister this first time round that he goes to Buckingham Palace.

It shows that he is nervous, he said it himself, but he's not entirely comfortable with his role yet. So he needs the support of his wife. This is in comparison with later in the film at the very end, actually, where Tony Blair goes to Buckingham Palace himself and conducts a meeting with the queen, very similar to the one that he's doing now. This shot where we've got Mrs. Blair sitting opposite the guard at quite a distance adds to the sense of awkwardness, and it's paralleled with the sense of openness between the queen and the prime minister as well.

So, it shows that we've got the old and the new sort of coming together and sort of not really gelling. Something to keep an eye on is parallels in the film. It's always a really good idea to compare the start and end of this particular film, because we've got such similar scenarios in meaning at the start of the film and in meaning at the end of the film. What you'll notice in this particular scene is that they don't appear in the same shot. They sit opposite one another and one shot on Tony Blair, one shot on the queen, and it sort of goes back and forth.

And that's to heighten that sense of distance between them. That sense of unfamiliarity. This is in comparison with the end of the film when we see the two of them walking down the hallway together, out into the garden as equal. Here's another great shot. So, to add on the idea of the queen having more power versus prime minister, it's quite clear here as he sits down and asks for her hand. I love the way that Mrs. Blair walks. She's sort of like half I don't know how you would explain her stride, but it's obviously not one that is aligned with how the queen walks, which is quite poised and quite together.

Rather, Mrs. Blair's walk is sort of frumpy, it's sort of bouncy, and her arms are sort of flailing around a little bit, and so adds to that sense of new, of change, of difference. And so that adds to the story of Tony Blair and his family and what he represents as something new and different and probably unwelcome for the queen. So, that's it, that's my analysis of the first 10 minutes or so of this film. In this, I show you film techniques that I pick out throughout watching the film, how to analyze them, and also then go on to show you how they are used in A-plus essays. If you're curious about what's inside the study guide and want to see if it's right for you, head on over and read a free sample to see it for yourself.

I hope it gives you something to launch off. If you have any questions, feel free to leave them in the description box below. I have plenty of resources for you guys down there as well if you needed help for your SAC and exams and I'll catch you guys next time. Frears incorporates these clips to help provide viewers insight on the politics, media culture, and public reaction in Moments of her kissing on a boat are revealed to the world without any respect for her privacy. Likewise, Malouf uses parts of The Iliad as foundations for his novel. By offering a retrospective of this historical story, Malouf invites readers to better understand the Trojan War and Greek mythology, and the impact the gods had on Trojans and Greeks. I've dropped some sample essay topics below for you to try at home yourselves:.

Ransom Study Guide. The following resources are no longer on the study design; however, you might still pick up a few valuable tips nonetheless:. Ransom and Invictus. Ransom and Invictus Prompts. Using quotations in essays helps to demonstrate your knowledge of the text, and provides solid evidence for your arguments. A quotation is the repetition of a group of words taken from a text by someone other than the original author. There is no general rule in Australia regarding which type of inverted comma you must use for quotations. Single inverted commas are preferred in Australia as they follow the British standard. The American standard involves styling quotations with the double inverted comma.

You can choose either style, just be consistent in your essays. However, quotations must be used correctly, otherwise you risk and these frequent mistakes will be discussed in detail later :. As you discuss ideas in a paragraph, quotes should be added to develop these ideas further. A quote should add insight into your argument; therefore, it is imperative that the quote you choose relates intrinsically to your discussion.

This is dependent on which aspect of the text you are discussing, for example:. Never quote just for the sake of quoting. Throwing in quotations just to make your essay appear more sophisticated will only be more damaging if the quotation does not adequately reinforce or expand on your contention. Conversely, an essay with no quotations will not achieve many marks either. A quotation should never tell the story for you. Thus, you must be selective in how much you want to quote. Generally speaking, the absolute minimum is three quotes per paragraph but you should not overload your paragraphs either. Overcrowding your essay with too many quotations will lead to failure to develop your ideas, as well as your work appearing too convoluted for your assessor.

Remember that the essay is your piece of work and should consist mainly of your own ideas and thoughts. Single worded quotations can often leave the largest impression on the assessor. This is because you are able to demonstrate that you can focus on one word and develop an entire idea around it. I realised then that I had begun to step small and carry myself all hunched, keeping my arms at my sides and my elbows tucked, as if to leave room for them.

Long quotations comprise of more than one sentence — avoid using them as evidence. Your assessor will not mark you highly if the bulk of your paragraphs consists of long quotations. You should aim to keep your quotations to less than 2 lines on an A4 writing page. If you have a long quotation you wish to use, be selective. Choose only the important phrases or key words, and remove the remaining sentence by replacing it with an ellipsis ….

You would have noticed that a square bracket [ ] was used. This will be discussed in detail under Blending Quotes. You must make sure that you use quotation marks whenever you use evidence from your text. Even a single flicker of the eyes could be mistaken for the essential crime that contained all other crimes in itself — thought crime. There are serious consequences for plagiarism. VCAA will penalise students for plagiarism.

You should always aim to interweave quotations into your sentences in order to achieve good flow and enhanced readability of your essay. Below is a good example of blending in quotations:. John Proctor deals with his own inner conflict as he is burdened with guilt and shame of his past adulterous actions. Yet during the climatic ending of the play, Proctor honours his principles as he rejects signing a false confession. Broken sentences are a common mistake made when students aim to integrate quotations into their sentences. Below are examples of broken sentences due to poor integration of a quotation:.

Scrooge is illustrated as a person who is isolated in his own sphere. A Christmas Carol, Charles Dickens. Never write a sentence consisting of only a quotation. This does not add insight into your argument, nor does it achieve good flow or readability. This example is better, however the sentence is still difficult to read. In order to blend quotations into your sentences, try adding in words that will help merge the quotation and your own words together:.

This is usually done to:. Authors sometimes write in past looked , present look or future tense will look. Depending on how you approach your essay, you may choose to write with one of the three tenses. Cosi, Louis Nowra. The author may write in a first I, we , second you or third person he, she, they narrative. Thus, it is necessary to replace first and second person pronouns with third person pronouns. When Keller was finally ready to share his brutal past with Paul, the latter disregarded the maestro, as he was too immersed in his own adolescent interests. Maestro, Peter Goldsworthy.

Sometimes, it may be necessary to insert your own words in square brackets so that the quotation will be coherent when incorporated into your sentences. It is important to maintain proper grammar while weaving in quotations. The question is: does the punctuation go inside or outside the final quotation mark? The rule is: If the quoted words end with a full stop or comma , then the full stop goes inside the quotation marks. If the quoted words do not end with a full stop, then the full stop goes outside the quotation marks. The Secret River, Kate Grenville. On The Waterfront, Elia Kazan. Alternatively, you can underline the title of the text instead of using single quotation marks.

Many teachers and examiners prefer this option. When you quote the author who is quoting someone else, then you will need to switch between single and double quotation marks. If you're following the American standard, you'll need to do this the opposite way - that is, using double quotation marks for the author's words and and then single quotation marks for the quote. We recommend sticking to the preferred Australian style though, which is single and then double.

The dialogue used by the author is surrounded by double quotation marks. This demonstrates that the dialogue used in the text still belongs to the author. When you wish to express irony, you use quotation marks to illustrate that the implied meaning of the actual word or phrase is different to the normal meaning. Tip One: Do not go onto Google and type in 'Good quotes for X text', because this is not going to work. These type of quotes are generally the most famous and the most popular quotes because, yes they are good quotes, but does that necessarily mean that it's going to be a good quote in your essay?

Probably not. But why? Well, it's because these quotes are the most likely to be overused by students - absolutely every single person who has studied this text before you, and probably every single person who will study this text after you. You want to be unique and original. So, how are you going to find those 'good quotes'? Recognise which quotes are constantly being used and blacklist them.

Quotes are constantly used in study guides are generally the ones that will be overused by students. Once you eliminate these quotes, you can then go on to find potentially more subtle quotes that are just as good as the more popular or famous ones. Tip Two: Re-read the book. There is nothing wrong with you going ahead and finding your own quotes. You don't need to find quotes that already exist online or in study guides. Go and find whatever gels with you and whatever you feel like has a lot of meaning to it. I had a friend back in high school who was studying a book by Charles Dickens.

I haven't read the book myself, but there was a character who couldn't pronounce the letter S, or he had a lisp of some sort. What my friend did was he found this one word where, throughout the entire book, the guy with the lisp only ever said the S one time and that was a massive thing. So, he used that. This is something that is really unique and original. So, go ahead and try to find your own quotes. Tip Three: Realise that good quotes do not necessarily have to come from the main character.

Yes, the main character does often have good quotes associated with whatever they're saying, but just know that you do have minor characters who can say something really relevant and have a really good point too. Their quote is going to be just as strong in your essay as a main character's quote, which will probably be overused and overdone by so many other students.

Why Use Quotes? The Best Books by Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy Camus. One uses metalanguage and one doesn't, and you'll see how a massive difference in Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy the student understands the text is really Similarities Between The Odyssey And Troy.

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