⌚ Rational Approach In Diversity Management
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The Rational Decision Making Model: Steps and Purpose in Organizations
Filion, L. Entrepreneurial performance, networking, vision and relations. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 7 3 , 3— Fletcher, D. Understanding the small family business Routledge studies in small business. London: Routledge. A network perspective of cultural organising and professional management in the small family business. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 9 4 , — Gayen, K.
Social networks, age cohorts and employment. Getz, D. The family business in hospitality and tourism. Book Google Scholar. Grabher, G. Rediscovering the social in the economics of interfirm relations. Grabher Ed. Grandori, A. An organizational assessment of interfirm coordination modes. Organization Studies, 18 6 , — Granovetter, M. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78 , — The strength of weak ties: a network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1 , — Gura, T. Appeasement entrepreneurship: Family conflict as a source of new business opportunities. Nordqvist, G. Marzanno, E. Brenes, G. Opportunities and resources in Latin America. Gloucester: Edward Elgar. Hall, A. Towards an understanding of strategy processes in small family businesses: A multi-rational perspective.
Fletcher Ed. Harvey, M. Forgotten sources of capital for the family-owned business. Family Business Review, 8 3 , — Ibarra, H. Structural alignments, individual strategies and managerial action: elements towards a network theory of getting things done. Boston: Harvard University Press. IFB The UK family business sector an institute for family business report by capital economics February INSNA Irava, W.
Clarifying the strategic advantage of familieness: unbundling its dimensions and clarifying its paradoxes. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1 3 , — Jensen, J. Does the degree of redundancy in social networks influence the success of business start-ups? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 8 5 , — Johannisson, B. Beyond process and structure: social exchange networks. Jones, C. Affiliate directors and perceived risk bearing in publicly traded, family controlled firms: The case of diversification Baylor University — Kenyon-Rouvinez, D. Family business: Key issues.
New York: Palgrave McMillan. Kets de Vries, M. Family business on the couch: A psychological perspective. New York: Wiley. Klein, S. Guest editorial: understanding the non-economic motivated factors in family firms. Klyver, K. Shifting family involvement during the entrepreneurial process. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 13 5 , — Gender differences in entrepreneurial networking and participation.
International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2 3 , — Knoke, D. Political networks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Network analysis: Basic concepts. Thomson, J. Frances, R. Mitchell Eds. London: Sage Publishing. Lindsay, C. Unemployment duration and employability in remote rural labour markets. Journal of Rural Studies, 19 , — Alternative job search strategies sin remote rural and peri-urban labour markets: the role of social networks. Levent, T. Diversity in entrepreneurship: ethnic and female roles in urban economic life. International Journal of Social Economics, 30 11 , — Littlejohn, D.
McGregor, J. Profiling a new generation of female small business owners in New Zealand: networking, mentoring and growth gender. McQuaid, R. Social networks, entrepreneurship and regional development. Danson Ed. The network construct in entrepreneurship research: a review and critique. Management Decision, 39 9 , — Ouchi, W. Markets, bureaucracies and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25 , — Type Z organisation: stability in the midst of mobility. Academy of Management Review, 3 , — Types of organisational control and their relationship to emotional well-being. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23 , — Poutziouris, Z.
Handbook of research on family business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Plural rationalities in family business strategy paper to the ESRC workshop on family business. London: The British Library. Prenkert, F. Conceptualising, delineating and analysing business networks. European Journal of Marketing, 40 3—4 , — Ram, M. Unravelling social networks in ethnic minority firms. International Small Business Journal, 12 3 , 42— Ethnic minorities in business small business research trust report Milton Keynes.
Sharma, P. A review and annotated bibliography of family business studies. Boston: Kluwer. Strategic management of the family business: past research and future challenges. Family Business Review, 1 , 1— Snijders, T. Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling 2nd ed. London: Sage Publishers. IBM Corp. The corporation manufactures computer software and hardware systems. It also offers consultation services for technology among others. Its managers and leaders were ranked the best worldwide in Marx, The strategic planning of the company is done twice in a month. However, the management can also make independent decisions regarding the formulation and implementation of strategies in cases where the process is done continuously.
This state of affairs in the organisation was designed to ensure the exploitation of opportunities and proper allocation of resources. According to Johnson, Whittington, and Scholes , the emergence approach is an unintended pattern, action, or consistency in entity over time in the absence of an objective. This approach is also perceived as consistent market behaviour over time. However, it does not occur in the initial planning process. The approach ensures that managers implement strategies through practice. It enhances flexibility in the dynamic business environment that organisations exist. The management of the emergence approach involves less control than the rational strategy. Nadin reveals that the emergence strategy assumes a dynamic bottom-up approach.
It is less structured in nature with more emphasis on process management. As a result, it allows the management to predict the operations of an entity shortly. Therefore, business managers can seize emerging opportunities promptly Nadin, The management benefits from the practical learning process that the approach entails. In this regard, the management and staff learn new techniques that are paramount to the implementation of both short-term and long-term organisational goals. Moreover, the emergence approach also embraces innovation, especially in top-notch organisations that are primarily driven by modernism Grant, The Xerox Company is a multinational corporation based in America.
The document management corporation deals with printers, multifunctional systems, and photocopiers among other products Grant, Founded in , it is well known for its strategic planning based on the emergence approach. For instance, the company has developed many innovation partnerships with other companies for several years. The company uses the unstructured and decentralised approach in which the top management does not necessarily make decisions. The organisation has established subsidiary branches in India and Japan. The Xerox Company promotes an innovation culture to improve the satisfaction of consumers and the needs of other stakeholders Teece, Also, the company utilises apt communication models to promote the timely flow of information.
The rational approach has been depicted as deliberate and logical because it is based on scientific facts. In the context of this approach, the CEO and top management are perceived as the primary decision-makers in the organisation Markides, Recent research that was conducted by Markides , factors such as diversity, innovation, and strategy were used to prove that the rational approach was a scientific approach to company analysis. Some researchers have revealed that the implementation of the rational approach together with the availability of adequate information results in higher returns and improved results. This approach is deliberate and ensures the scientific analysis of issues with clearly defined objectives.
Therefore, the timely availability of information can generate a positive outcome. Clegg, Carter, Kornberger, and Schweitzer posit that successful implementation of the rational approach involves the provision of relevant information and selection of the best available alternatives. This situation results in the achievement of goals. Moreover, the approach sustains the resources of a company by strengthening its strategic position in the market and ensuring accessibility of vital information concerning the costs of trade that can be used to place the business operations at the global level. Other models that have been implemented in organisations include radical approaches such as the Uppsala and OLI models Clegg et al.
One of the lacking techniques that many researchers such as Hambrick have noted is the incomprehensive feature. This approach fails to consider various human factors that are not stable in decision-making processes. The process of formulating decisions in a company also involves systems that are based on cognitive systems to arrive at a feasible conclusion. The complexity of the rational approach is also seen where the strategies are formed due to its nature of linearity. Formation of the strategy requires processes that are intertwined.
To counteract such limitations, the emergence approach to strategic planning is implemented in various organisations. The approach is more flexible than the rational strategy, which is characterised by rigidity. It also allows the management to respond to the dynamic and constant change in technology and environment efficiently. This set of circumstances is accomplished through the implementation of the emergence approach to strategic planning. Intuition is part of human beings and the top management must give their thoughts on the rational planning strategy Steiner, Creativity is paramount to contemporary business situations where dynamic environmental factors play a vital role in the realisation of organisational goals.
The essay has elaborated the rational strategic planning as the best way to formulate feasible decisions. It has been realised that the rational approach is a top-down process that is used for planning strategies by the management of organisations. This approach is structured in nature owing to its logical aspects that minimise errors through scientific interventions. Logicalness is critical in ensuring the reduction of business uncertainties among others. The essay has also elaborated the emergence approach to strategic planning in an organisation that has been described as unstructured and dynamic.
The increasingly competitive nature of modern industries requires organisations to implement business approaches that are more robust to capture factors that govern consumer behaviour. Most managers who implement the technique respond promptly to changes in technology and consumer behaviour among others. Andersen, T. European Management Journal, 22 3 , Balgobin, R. European Management Journal , 19 3 , Barney, J. Resource-based theories of competitive advantage: A ten-year retrospective on the resource-based view. Journal of Management, 27 6 , Brinckmann, J. Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning—performance relationship in small firms.
Journal of Business Venturing, 25 1 , Bryson, J. Strategic planning for public and non-profit organisations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organisational achievement. Clegg, S. Strategy: theory and practice. New York, NY: Sage. Dittrich, K. Strategic repositioning by means of alliance networks: The case of IBM. Research Policy, 36 10 , Donaldson, B. Strategic market relationships: from strategy to implementation. New York, NY: Wiley.
Doz, Y. Embedding strategic agility: A leadership agenda for accelerating business model renewal. Long Range Planning, 43 2 , Garvin, D. Strategic planning at United Parcel Service. Andover: Cengage Learning. Godet, M. The art of scenarios and strategic planning: tools and pitfalls. Technological forecasting and social change , 65 1 , Grant, R. Contemporary strategy analysis and cases: text and cases.
Hambrick, D. Academy of Management Journal, 50 6 , Hill, C. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Journal of Business Venturing, 6— One bilingual employee can help bridge the language barrier between companies across the Rational Approach In Diversity Management due to speaking two languages. Examining the efficacy of rational-emotive behavior therapy Rational Approach In Diversity Management on irrational beliefs and anxiety in elite youth cricketers. How Does Social Rational Approach In Diversity Management Work In The Same Way Rational Approach In Diversity Management 2 Pages Diversity is a tricky thing to Rational Approach In Diversity Management and understand because it has both negative and positive effects on Rational Approach In Diversity Management such Foucault Madness And Civilization Analysis education, violence Rational Approach In Diversity Management employment. It has been realised that Consequentialist Theories Of Moral Evaluation rational approach Rational Approach In Diversity Management a top-down process that is used Rational Approach In Diversity Management planning strategies Rational Approach In Diversity Management the management of organisations.