⌛ Critical Issues In Islam

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Critical Issues In Islam

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Ex-Muslims share their experiences - The Economist

As the Delphi process was not stratified, the peculiarities of the different settings were blurred. For instance, in this methodology, regional and gender differences and those related to the type of the health facility were indistinct. In addition, it appeared that there was no definite consensus on the meaning of some terms used. Finally, there was also the fact that communication with the participants of the study was basically electronically supported by some phone calls and faxes.

Moreover, the modified Delphi model, presented the possibility of some members dominating the discussions in the face-to-face expert meeting. However, the organizers did their utmost to prevent this from happening. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: Nil. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Family Community Med. Abdulaziz F. Alkabba , 1, 2 Ghaiath M. Hussein , 2 Adnan A. Albar , 3 Ahmad A. Bahnassy , 4 and Mahdi Qadi 5. Ghaiath M. Adnan A. Ahmad A. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr.

Box , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia. E-mail: as. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Bioethics, ethical issues, ethics priorities, medical ethics. Table 1 Hospitals included from each city and the sample size in each. Open in a separate window. Data collection tools and analysis A modified Delphi process was conducted in three rounds. Limitations of the study This study focused on major ethical issues without providing an exhaustive list. Population by Nationality in Health regions H. Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health. Health Statistics Book for the year of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Health. Saudi Arabia: Health Profile. World Health Organization. Health Statistical Year Book. Riyadh: Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia; Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: Views of Toronto bioethicists.

BMC Med Ethics. Bankauskaite V, Jakusovaite I. Dealing with ethical problems in the healthcare system in Lithuania: Achievements and challenges. J Med Ethics. J Gen Intern Med. Priority ethical issues in oncology nursing: Current approaches and future directions. Oncol Nurs Forum. Albar MA. Islamic ethics of organ transplantation and brain death. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. Ebrahim AF. Organ transplantation: Contemporary Sunni Muslim legal and ethical perspectives.

Babgi A. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. Mobeireek A. The do-not-resuscitate order: Indications on the current practice in Riyadh. Meanwhile, opinion polls—from the early s onwards—indicated that many citizens in the Netherlands were critical of the immigration of newcomers, and even supported voluntary remigration. Similarly, the Dutch post-electoral surveys from onward consistently showed that a majority of the population preferred that immigrants assimilate aanpassen rather than retain their own culture.

In the build-up to the general election of , Pim Fortuyn would become the first Dutch politician to make these issues a central element of his electoral agenda without being marginalized as a racist and extremist. On May 6, , however, Fortuyn was assassinated by an environmental activist nine days before the Dutch general election. Posthumously, his Pim Fortuyn List LPF obtained 17 percent of the vote—the highest ever result for a first-time party.

In , when the next parliamentary elections were held in the Netherlands, the LPF lost all seats. The Dutch Party for Freedom is an exceptional party not only in matters related to Islam, as will be discussed in more detail below, but also in terms of organizational structure. To my knowledge, the PVV is the only political party in the world that counts just one official member, Geert Wilders. Ever since, Wilders sleeps in safe houses and lives under strict round-the-clock police protection. This delicate safety situation in which Wilders and his colleagues found themselves since the beginning of their party undoubtedly contributed to a distinctive self-image.

Rather than being solely office seekers, they consider themselves conviction politicians , for whom the fight against Islam and mass immigration are as important as electoral success—if not more so. But our task is also another one, namely to tell the story of Islam and mass immigration in order to counterbalance the pink fantasies that the elites above us depict. Opening up the discussion is at least as important as the number of [Parliamentary] seats that we get.

We are not just politicians, we are also a bit of missionaries. During a March interview with the Dutch news website NU. Between , when the PVV leader started to use the medium more frequently in a Trumpian fashion avant la lettre until January , In this, its vision goes counter to the liberal separation of church and state. Initially, these arguments were reserved for political Islam. In its first party manifesto, published in , the issue was only mentioned briefly and in passing. According to the party manifesto, it would affect no less than all facets of society:. Mass immigration has enormous consequences for all facets of our society.

To just highlight one sector: even health care is Islamizing rapidly. Muslim women who refuse treatment by male doctors, who do not want to be washed by male nurses, Islamic elderly who claim halal food from the cooks in their nursing home, homecare workers who have to bring an interpreter with them because the patient only speaks Turkish or Arabic. And who, do you think, pays that interpreter? And why is that interpreter necessary anyway? Quite the contrary; for Wilders, some aspects of the multi-faceted threat of Islamization are more important than others, as I will demonstrate. Yet, for Geert Wilders, Islamization of the Netherlands constitutes more than a mere economic affront. In fact, the PVV leader has repeatedly qualified the issue as nothing less than an existential problem.

The predominance of cultural over economic concerns has characterized the top rung of the PVV ever since the party was founded. Martin Bosma, for instance, was there already, Geert himself was there too. I just had a nostalgic story about my youth and how that was lost, that part of the Netherlands, how it had all disappeared, and I think that is what caught on. Stop the Islamization of the Netherlands and the West! By defending the latter, Wilders is not only capable of depicting Islamic culture as intolerant, sexist, and homophobic; it simultaneously allows him to claim the superiority of a Dutch national identity that is increasingly intertwined with secularism. Paradoxically, the PVV leader thus presents values that were historically associated with anti-religious and anti-Christian attitudes as achievements of Dutch Judeo-Christian culture.

This embrace of progressive values, which has become almost a requirement for the electoral success of conservative parties in the highly secularized Dutch context, makes the PVV a rather peculiar case in comparison to its political allies abroad. Wilders invokes one issue more often than national identity when articulating his anti-Islam stances. It brings violence and danger everywhere. The fate of Pim Fortuyn and Theo van Gogh is a warning and a reminder. While the FVD obtained 1. Puin has been investigating these Quran fragments for years.

His research team made 35, microfilm photographs of the manuscripts, which he dated to early part of the 8th century. Puin has not published the entirety of his work, but noted unconventional verse orderings, minor textual variations, and rare styles of orthography. He also suggested that some of the parchments were palimpsests which had been reused. Puin believed that this implied a text that changed over time as opposed to one that remained the same.

Kaaba is the most sacred site in Islam. In her book, Islam: A Short History , Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba was officially dedicated to Hubal , a Nabatean deity, and contained idols that probably represented the days of the year. The others also allegedly had counterparts of the Black Stone. There was a "red stone", the deity of the south Arabian city of Ghaiman, and the "white stone" in the Kaaba of al-Abalat near the city of Tabala , south of Mecca.

Grunebaum in Classical Islam points out that the experience of divinity of that period was often associated with stone fetishes , mountains, special rock formations, or "trees of strange growth. According to Sarwar, [] about years before the birth of Muhammad, a man named "Amr bin Lahyo bin Harath bin Amr ul-Qais bin Thalaba bin Azd bin Khalan bin Babalyun bin Saba", who was descended from Qahtan and was the king of Hijaz had placed a Hubal idol onto the roof of the Kaaba.

This idol was one of the chief deities of the ruling tribe Quraysh. The idol was made of red agate and shaped like a human, but with the right hand broken off and replaced with a golden hand. When the idol was moved inside the Kaaba, it had seven arrows in front of it, which were used for divination. They depict it as a city grown rich on the proceeds of the spice trade. Patricia Crone believes that this is an exaggeration and that Mecca may only have been an outpost trading with nomads for leather, cloth, and camel butter. Crone argues that if Mecca had been a well-known center of trade, it would have been mentioned by later authors such as Procopius , Nonnosus , or the Syrian church chroniclers writing in Syriac.

The town is absent, however, from any geographies or histories written in the three centuries before the rise of Islam. Muhammad is considered one of the prophets in Islam and as a model for followers. Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf wrote a poetic eulogy commemorating the slain Quraish notables; later, he had traveled to Mecca and provoked the Quraish to fight Muhammad. He also wrote erotic poetry about Muslim women, which offended the Muslims there. Other sources also state that he was plotting to assassinate Muhammad. Muhammad ibn Maslama offered his services, collecting four others.

By pretending to have turned against Muhammad, Muhammad ibn Maslama and the others enticed Ka'b out of his fortress on a moonlit night, [] and killed him in spite of his vigorous resistance. According to scriptural Sunni's Hadith sources, Aisha was six or seven years old when she was married to Muhammad and nine when the marriage was consummated. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari , born in Persia years after Muhammmad's death, suggested that she was ten years old. Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi , born about years after Muhammad's death, cited Hisham ibn Urwah as saying that she was nine years old at marriage, and twelve at consummation, [] but Hisham ibn Urwah 's original source is otherwise unknown, and Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi 's work does not have the high religious status of the Hadith.

In the twentieth century, Indian writer Muhammad Ali challenged the Hadith showing that Aisha was not as young as the traditional sources claim, arguing that instead, a new interpretation of the Hadith compiled by Mishkat al-Masabih , Wali-ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Khatib, could indicate that Aisha would have been nineteen years old around the time of her marriage. Colin Turner, a UK professor of Islamic studies , [] states that since such marriages between an older man and a young girl were customary among the Bedouins , Muhammad's marriage would not have been considered improper by his contemporaries.

Marriages conducted in absentia to seal an alliance were often contracted at this time between adults and minors who were even younger than Aisha. According to some critics, the morality of the Quran appears to be a moral regression when judged by the standards of the moral traditions of Judaism and Christianity it says that it builds upon. The Catholic Encyclopedia , for example, states that "the ethics of Islam are far inferior to those of Judaism and even more inferior to those of the New Testament" and "that in the ethics of Islam there is a great deal to admire and to approve, is beyond dispute; but of originality or superiority, there is none.

In The End of Faith Harris argues that Muslim extremism is simply a consequence of taking the Quran literally, and is skeptical that moderate Islam is possible. Henry Martyn claims that the concept of the Houris was chosen to satisfy Muhammad's followers. Bernard Lewis writes: "In one of the sad paradoxes of human history , it was the humanitarian reforms brought by Islam that resulted in a vast development of the slave trade inside, and still more outside, the Islamic empire.

According to Brockopp, on the other hand, the idea of using alms for the manumission of slaves appears to be unique to the Quran, assuming the traditional interpretation of verses [ Quran ] and [ Quran ]. Similarly, the practice of freeing slaves in atonement for certain sins appears to be introduced by the Quran but compare Exod The unique contribution of the Qur'an, then, is to be found in its emphasis on the place of slaves in society and society's responsibility toward the slave, perhaps the most progressive legislation on slavery in its time.

Critics argue unlike Western societies which in their opposition to slavery spawned anti-slavery movements whose numbers and enthusiasm often grew out of church groups, no such grass-roots organizations ever developed in Muslim societies. In Muslim politics the state unquestioningly accepted the teachings of Islam and applied them as law. Islam, by sanctioning slavery, also extended legitimacy to the traffic in slaves.

According to Maurice Middleberg, however, " Sura 90 in the Quran states that the righteous path involves 'the freeing of slaves. He did not set out to abolish slavery, but rather to improve the conditions of slaves by urging his followers to treat their slaves humanely and free them as a way of expiating one's sins which some modern Muslim authors have interpreted as indication that Muhammad envisioned a gradual abolition of slavery. Critics say it was only in the early 20th century post World War I that slavery gradually became outlawed and suppressed in Muslim lands, largely due to pressure exerted by Western nations such as Britain and France.

By legitimizing slavery and — by extension — traffic in slaves, Islam elevated those practices to an unassailable moral plane. As a result, in no part of the Muslim world was an ideological challenge ever mounted against slavery. The political and social system in Muslim society would have taken a dim view of such a challenge. However, In Islamic jurisprudence , slavery was theoretically an exceptional condition under the dictum The basic principle is liberty al-'asl huwa 'l-hurriya , so that for a foundling or another person whose status was unknown freedom was presumed and enslavement forbidden.

The issue of slavery in the Islamic world in modern times is controversial. Critics argue there is hard evidence of its existence and destructive effects. Others maintain slavery in central Islamic lands has been virtually extinct since mid-twentieth century, and that reports from Sudan and Somalia showing practice of slavery is in border areas as a result of continuing war [] and not Islamic belief. In recent years, according to some scholars, [] there has been a "worrying trend" of "reopening" of the issue of slavery by some conservative Salafi Islamic scholars after its "closing" earlier in the 20th century when Muslim countries banned slavery and "most Muslim scholars" found the practice "inconsistent with Qur'anic morality.

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri of Karbala expressed the view in that the enforcement of servitude can occur but is restricted to war captives and those born of slaves. In a issue of their digital magazine Dabiq , the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women. According to Islamic law apostasy is identified by a list of actions such as conversion to another religion, denying the existence of God , rejecting the prophets , mocking God or the prophets, idol worship, rejecting the sharia , or permitting behavior that is forbidden by the sharia, such as adultery or the eating of forbidden foods or drinking of alcoholic beverages.

The kind of apostasy which the jurists generally deemed punishable was of the political kind, although there were considerable legal differences of opinion on this matter. Laws prohibiting religious conversion run contrary to Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , which states that "[e]veryone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Bosworth suggests the traditional view of apostasy hampered the development of Islamic learning, arguing that while the organizational form of the Christian university allowed them to develop and flourish into the modern university, "the Muslim ones remained constricted by the doctrine of waqf alone, with their physical plant often deteriorating hopelessly and their curricula narrowed by the exclusion of the non-traditional religious sciences like philosophy and natural science," out of fear that these could evolve into potential toe-holds for kufr , those people who reject God.

At a human rights conference at Mofid University in Qom , Araki stated that "if an individual doubts Islam, he does not become the subject of punishment, but if the doubt is openly expressed , this is not permissible. In 13 Muslim-majority countries atheism is punishable by death. This principle was upheld "even in extreme situations", such as when an offender adopts Islam "only for fear of death", based on the hadith that Muhammad had upbraided a follower for killing a raider who had uttered the shahada. The penalty for apostasy in Islamic law is death. Islam is conceived as a polity, not just as a religious community. It follows therefore that apostasy is treason. It is a withdrawal, a denial of allegiance as well as of religious belief and loyalty.

Any sustained and principled opposition to the existing regime or order almost inevitably involves such a withdrawal. The four Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence , as well as Shi'a scholars, agree on the difference of punishment between male and female. A sane adult male apostate may be executed. A female apostate may be put to death, according to the majority view, or imprisoned until she repents, according to others. The Quran threatens apostates with punishment in the next world only, the historian W. Heffening states, the traditions however contain the element of death penalty.

Muslim scholar Shafi'i interprets verse Quran [] as adducing the main evidence for the death penalty in Quran. William Montgomery Watt , in response to a question about Western views of the Islamic Law as being cruel, states that "In Islamic teaching, such penalties may have been suitable for the age in which Muhammad lived. However, as societies have since progressed and become more peaceful and ordered, they are not suitable any longer. Some contemporary Islamic jurists from both the Sunni and Shia denominations together with Quran only Muslims have argued or issued fatwas that state that either the changing of religion is not punishable or is only punishable under restricted circumstances. Montazeri defines different types of apostasy.

He does not hold that a reversion of belief because of investigation and research is punishable by death but prescribes capital punishment for a desertion of Islam out of malice and enmity towards the Muslim. According to Yohanan Friedmann , an Israeli Islamic Studies scholar, a Muslim may stress tolerant elements of Islam by for instance adopting the broadest interpretation of Quran "No compulsion is there in religion Similarly neither Judaism nor Christianity treated apostasy and apostates with any particular kindness".

The real predicament facing modern Muslims with liberal convictions is not the existence of stern laws against apostasy in medieval Muslim books of law, but rather the fact that accusations of apostasy and demands to punish it are heard time and again from radical elements in the contemporary Islamic world. Some widely held interpretations of Islam are inconsistent with Human Rights conventions that recognize the right to change religion. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion of his choice. The right for Muslims to change their religion is not afforded by the Iranian Shari'ah law , which specifically forbids it. In , the Iranian representative to the United Nations , Said Rajaie-Khorassani , articulated the position of his country regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by saying that the UDHR was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law.

The prosecution of converts from Islam on the basis of religious edicts that identify apostasy as an offense punishable by death is clearly at variance with this obligation. Abul Ala Maududi , the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami , [] wrote a book called Human Rights in Islam , [] in which he argues that respect for human rights has always been enshrined in Sharia law indeed that the roots of these rights are to be found in Islamic doctrine [] and criticizes Western notions that there is an inherent contradiction between the two.

The September 11 attacks on the United States, and various other acts of Islamic terrorism over the 21st century, have resulted in many non-Muslims' indictment of Islam as a violent religion. On the one hand, some critics claim that certain verses of the Quran sanction military action against unbelievers as a whole both during the lifetime of Muhammad and after. The Quran says, "Fight in the name of your religion with those who fight against you. Orientalist David Margoliouth described the Battle of Khaybar as the "stage at which Islam became a menace to the whole world.

Montgomery Watt mentions another reason for the battle. He believes Jews' intriguing and use of their wealth to incite tribes against Muhammad left him no choice but to attack. Jihad , an Islamic term , is a religious duty of Muslims. Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving for the sake of God al-jihad fi sabil Allah ". A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam , though it occupies no such official status.

The Quran calls repeatedly for jihad, or holy struggle, resistance, against unbelievers, including, at times, Jews and Christians. The Quran: : " Another aim and objective of jihad is to drive terror in the hearts of the [infidels]. To terrorize them. Did you know that we were commanded in the Qur'an with terrorism? Allah said, and prepare for them to the best of your ability with power, and with horses of war.

To drive terror in the hearts of my enemies, Allah's enemies, and your enemies. And other enemies which you don't know, only Allah knows them So we were commanded to drive terror into the hearts of the [infidels], to prepare for them with the best of our abilities with power. Then the Prophet said, nay, the power is your ability to shoot. The power which you are commanded with here, is your ability to shoot.

Another aim and objective of jihad is to kill the [infidels], to lessen the population of the [infidels] David Cook, author of Understanding Jihad , said "In reading Muslim literature — both contemporary and classical — one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non- Western language such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu , would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. According to Fawzy Abdelmalek, "many Muslim scholars speak of Islam as a religion of peace and not of violence.

They say that the non-Muslims misunderstand the Quran verses about Jihad and the conduct of war in Islam. Dennis Prager , columnist and author, in responding to a movement that contends that Islam is "a religion of peace," wrote: "Now, Islam has never been a religion of peace. It began as a warlike religion and throughout its history, whenever possible, made war on non-Muslims — from the polytheists of North Africa to the Hindus of India, about 60 to 80 million of whom Muslims killed during their thousand-year rule there. Neuman, a scholar on religion, describes Islam as "a perfect anti-religion" and "the antithesis of Buddhism. Charles Mathewes characterizes the peace verses as saying that "if others want peace, you can accept them as peaceful even if they are not Muslim.

Lawrence Wright , author of a Pulitzer-prize-winning book, argued that role of Wahhabi literature in Saudi schools contributing suspicion and hate violence against non-Muslims as non-believers or infidels and anyone who "disagrees with Wahhabism is either an infidel or a deviant, who should repent or be killed. Beheading was a standard method of execution in pre-modern Islamic law. Though a formerly widespread execution method, its use had been abandoned in most countries by the end of the 20th century. Currently, it is used only in Saudi Arabia. It also remains a legal method of execution in Iran, Qatar and Yemen, where it is no longer in use.

Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International , condemn Islamic laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. In May , the sexual rights lobby group Lambda Istanbul based in Istanbul , Turkey was banned by court order for violating a constitutional provision on the protection of the family and an article banning bodies with objectives that violate law and morality. In 10 Muslim-majority countries homosexual acts may be punishable by death, though in some the punishment has never been carried out.

The ex-Muslim Ibn Warraq states that the Quran's condemnation of homosexuality has frequently been ignored in practice, and that Islamic countries were much more tolerant of homosexuality than Christian ones until fairly recently. The duration of this type of marriage is fixed at its inception and is then automatically dissolved upon completion of its term. Ibn Kathir writes that "[t]here's no doubt that in the outset of Islam, Mut'ah was allowed under the Shari'ah". No other school of Islamic jurisprudence allows it. For example, it has been narrated from Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq that they said "regarding the [above] verse, and there is no blame on you about what you mutually agree after what is appointed.

Sunnis believe that Muhammad later abolished this type of marriage at several different large events, the most accepted being at Khaybar in 7 AH CE Bukhari Most Sunnis believe that Umar later was merely enforcing a prohibition that was established during Muhammad's time. Women must observe a period of celibacy idda to allow for the identification of a child's legitimate father, and a woman can only be married to one person at a time, be it temporary or permanent.

Some Shia scholars also view Mut'ah as a means of eradicating prostitution from society. Misyar has been suggested by some western authors to be a comparable marriage with Nikah mut'ah and that they find it for the sole purpose of "sexual gratification in a licit manner" [] [] According to Florian Pohl, assistant professor of religion at Oxford College , Misyar marriage is a controversial issue in the Muslim world, as many see it as practice that encourages marriages for purely sexual purposes, or that it is used as a cover for a form of prostitutuion.

Professor Yusuf Al-Qaradawi observes that he does not promote this type of marriage, although he has to recognise that it is legal, since it fulfils all the requirements of the usual marriage contract. They agree that the wife can at any time, reclaim the rights which she gave up at the time of contract. For Al-Albani , misyar marriage may even be considered illicit, because it runs counter to the objectives and the spirit of marriage in Islam, as described in the Quran: "And among His signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your hearts …" [] Al-Albani also underlines the social problems which result from the "misyar" marriage, particularly in the event that children are born from this union.

The children raised by their mother in a home from which the father is always absent, without reason, may suffer difficulties. Ibn Uthaymeen recognized the legality of "misyar" marriage under Shariah , but came to oppose it due to what he considered to be its harmful effects. Many scholars [] [] claim Shari'a law encourages domestic violence against women, when a husband suspects nushuz disobedience, disloyalty, rebellion, ill conduct in his wife.

One of the verses of the Quran relating to permissibility of domestic violence is Surah On the other hand, scholars and commentators have stated that Muhammad directed men not to hit their wives' faces, [] he said in Farewell Sermon not to beat their wives in such a way as would leave marks on their body. Shari'a is the basis for personal status laws in most Islamic majority nations. These personal status laws determine rights of women in matters of marriage, divorce and child custody. In legal proceedings under Shari'a law, a woman's testimony is worth half of a man's before a court. Except for Iran, Lebanon and Bahrain, which allow child marriages, the civil code in Islamic majority countries do not allow child marriage of girls.

However, with Shari'a personal status laws, Shari'a courts in all these nations have the power to override the civil code. The religious courts permit girls less than 18 years old to marry. As of , child marriages are common in a few Middle Eastern countries, accounting for 1 in 6 of all marriages in Egypt and 1 in 3 marriages in Yemen. However, the average age at marriage in most Middle Eastern countries is steadily rising and is generally in the low to mid 20s for women. Sharia grants women the right to inherit property from other family members, and these rights are detailed in the Quran. The status of women in classical Islamic law compared favorably to their status under laws of other contemporaneous cultures such those of pre-modern Europe, both in terms of financial independence and access to divorce, but the situation is different if it is evaluated against modern conceptions.

Sharia recognizes the basic inequality between master and women slave, between free women and slave women, between believers and non-believers, as well as their unequal rights. Slave women under sharia did not have a right to own property, right to free movement or right to consent. However, manumission required that the non-Muslim slave first convert to Islam. Starting with the 20th century, Western legal systems evolved to expand women's rights, but women's rights under Islamic law have remained tied to Quran, hadiths and their faithful interpretation as sharia by Islamic jurists.

The immigration of Muslims to Europe has increased in recent decades. Friction has developed between their new neighbours. Conservative Muslim social attitudes on modern issues have caused controversy in Europe and elsewhere. Scholars argue about how much these attitudes are a result of Islamic beliefs. Some critics consider Islam to be incompatible with secular Western society, and that, unlike other religions, Islam positively commands its adherents to impose its religious law on all peoples, believers and unbelievers alike, whenever possible and by any means necessary. Statements by proponents like Pascal Bruckner [] describe multiculturalism as an invention of an "enlightened" elite who deny the benefits of democratic rights to non-Westerners by chaining them to their roots.

They believe this allows Islam free rein to propagate what they state are abuses, such as the mistreatment of women and homosexuals , and in some countries slavery. They also state that multiculturalism allows a degree of religious freedom [] that exceeds what is needed for personal religious freedom [] and is conducive to the creation of organizations aimed at undermining European secular or Christian values. Emigrants from nearly every predominantly Muslim country have immigrated to Canada. In the United States, after the Boston Marathon bombing , the immigration processes in the country are assumed to be harder. In , speaking to the Acton Institute on the problems of "secular democracy", Cardinal George Pell drew a parallel between Islam and communism : "Islam may provide in the 21st century, the attraction that communism provided in the 20th, both for those that are alienated and embittered on the one hand and for those who seek order or justice on the other.

Writers such as Stephen Suleyman Schwartz [] and Christopher Hitchens , [] find some elements of Islamism fascistic. Malise Ruthven , a Scottish writer and historian who writes on religion and Islamic affairs, opposes redefining Islamism as " Islamofascism ", but also finds the resemblances between the two ideologies "compelling". French philosopher Alexandre del Valle compared Islamism with fascism and communism in his Red-green-brown alliance theory. John Esposito has written a number of introductory texts on Islam and the Islamic world. He has addressed issues including the rise of militant Islam , the veiling of women, and democracy. He thinks that "too often coverage of Islam and the Muslim world assumes the existence of a monolithic Islam in which all Muslims are the same.

Watt argues on a basis of moral relativism that Muhammad should be judged by the standards of his own time and country rather than "by those of the most enlightened opinion in the West today. Karen Armstrong , tracing what she believes to be the West's long history of hostility toward Islam, finds in Muhammad's teachings a theology of peace and tolerance. Armstrong holds that the "holy war" urged by the Quran alludes to each Muslim's duty to fight for a just, decent society.

Edward Said , in his essay Islam Through Western Eyes , writes that the general basis of Orientalist thought forms a study structure in which Islam is placed in an inferior position as an object of study. He argues the existence of a very considerable bias in Orientalist writings as a consequence of the scholars' cultural make-up. He states that Islam has been looked at with a particular hostility and fear due to many obvious religious, psychological and political reasons, all deriving from a sense "that so far as the West is concerned, Islam represents not only a formidable competitor but also a late-coming challenge to Christianity.

Cathy Young of Reason Magazine writes that "criticism of the religion is enmeshed with cultural and ethnic hostility" often painting the Muslim world as monolithic. While stating that the terms " Islamophobia " and "anti-Muslim bigotry" are often used in response to legitimate criticism of fundamentalist Islam and problems within Muslim culture, she argues that "the real thing does exist, and it frequently takes the cover of anti-jihadism.

In contrast to the widespread Western belief that women in Muslim societies are oppressed and denied opportunities to realize their full potential, most Muslims believe their faith to be liberating or fair to women, and some find it offensive that Westerners criticize it without fully understanding the historical and contemporary realities of Muslim women's lives. Conservative Muslims in particular in common with some Christians and Jews see women in the West as being economically exploited for their labor, sexually abused, and commodified through the media's fixation on the female body. Bernard Lewis maintains that though slaves often suffered on the way before reaching their destination, they received good treatment and some degree of acceptance as members of their owners' households.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Overviews and criticism of the Islamic religion. Texts Foundations. Culture and society. Related topics. By religion. By religious figure. By text. Religious violence. Main article: Medieval Christian views on Muhammad. This section contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally worded summary with appropriate citations.

Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote or, for entire works, to Wikisource. September Main article: Criticism of the Quran. Main article: Criticism of Hadith. See also: Historiography of early Islam. Main article: Criticism of Muhammad. See also: Criticism of Muhammad Aisha and Child marriage. Main article: Islamic ethics. Main articles: Islamic views on slavery and Sexual slavery in Islam. Main article: Apostasy in Islam. See also: Sharia. See also: Human rights. Main article: Islam and violence. See also: Quran and violence and Islam and war. Further information: Beheading in Islam. Main article: Nikah Misyar.

Main article: Women in Islam. Main article: Islam and domestic violence. See also: Multiculturalism and Islam and Opposition to immigration. Unfavorable views of Muslims, [] Country Percent Slovakia. Islam portal Religion portal. See Migne. Patrologia Graeca , vol. Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus Books. ISBN Moshe Perlmann Berkeley and Los Angeles, , pp.

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