🔥🔥🔥 Comparing Epictetus And Aristotles Theory Of Moral Luck
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Moral Luck: Crash Course Philosophy #39
He decided to stay in the Hillary Steep toward the Southern Summit. He knew it would risk his life staying there. However, he stayed there to save his client. This is considered as bravery, a virtue as Aristotle describes. Aristotle states that in order to be virtuous, one should be in the mean of that virtue. To me, it occurs that, in this case Rob Hall was acting little recklessly. He was risking his life to save his client, even though there was not a good chance of him being saved. On top everything, Hall lost his deciding and deliberating ability. In great altitudes like this, our brains do not function properly. This changes everything.
Even though Aristotle does not state anything about this subject, we can guess that in particular circumstances like this, we cannot praise or blame one because of his actions. Actions of Rob Hall, then, will be considered as involuntary actions. Being unconscious and performing involuntary actions, we cannot hold him responsible for anything he does. Moreover, he states that, if you act by the handbook, luck will not impact your goal of living a tranquilized life.
Epictetus, one of the most known Stoic philosophers, studies particularly disastrous and unexpected situations. First, he states that some things are up to us and some things are not. We cannot change things that are not up to us. All we can do is not think about it and let it pass. Secondly important, we should prepare ourselves for everything that has a possibility of happening. If anything is taken away from us other than our body, it is actually given back not taken away. Also, we only look for our needs. More than that, such as searching for luxury, will not do any good to us.
When you are looking for needs and find a luxury when doing so, enjoy the luxury as well. Lastly, he states that we are actors in a play and we should play the fool in this play. We do not get to choose our roles, however, we get to choose how we play it. Therefore, we are responsible for actions. If we do something, we are to be blamed or praised. First one was deciding on going to Everest. As Epictetus states, one should consider all the possibilities before taking an action.
That makes them responsible for their own actions and diminishes the fact of luck. Rob Hall decided to stay in the Southern Summit. He made this decision. He should bare the consequences. Epictetus says if we live by his handbook we will be in good health. Rob Hall tries to change faith. He tries to save his client who only has a slightest chance of living. By doing so, he tries to control things that are not up to him.
If you want something that is not up to you and do not get it, you are misfortunate then. Rob Hall is misfortunate here then. He was not thinking properly, therefore not judging properly. All of these facts considered, Rob Hall, in this case, is responsible for his actions. Aristotle is dealing with everyday philosophy and has a less strict perspective. On the other hand, Epictetus is a philosopher who is dealing with disastrous situations and has a strict perspective when compared to Aristotle.
Both of their philosophies have a common base, idea of luck, but have a different continuation. Get Full Access Now. See related essays. If this is true then the moral values they have later on in life must have been taught to them or obtained by their experiences and interaction with their surroundings. Plato was making a judgement that the mind had the ability to discern the ideal forms. The form of the Good is compared to the sun, In the visible world, the sun is a form of growth and light and gives us the faculty to see, in this way it gives objects their sense and allows them to be perceived. So in Aristotle's opinion the chosen end is eudaimonia, and the telos is to live a life of a Greek gentlemen philosopher.
His main argument is that reason will entitle the individual to happiness and the ability to make moral decisions, and reach telos. Hester is, in effect, taken out of reality at this point. She is no longer an active participant in the world; she is a spectator, held up as an example of fallen grace in her harsh society. It is her public exhibition of the letter that allows her the moral fortitude to withstand its shame. This continues until the children are of an age to be married. In India many Hindu girls are married while they are teenagers to make sure that they do not have any sexual contact before marriage. Adultery is unacceptable. Homosexuality is not mentioned at all in Hindu literature, and it.
This was the way to have the riches in heaven. The very rich man sulked, and disappeared into the crowd. Jesus then turned around to his disciples and said; "How hard it would be for rich people to enter the kingdom of God! Charity is the number one thing after worshipping god and parents in the Muslims daily life. Feeding a hungry person is is one of the best charity in Islam. The bible teaches that there is a higher world which is heaven, a lowly world which is earth and a lower world which is hell. Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Get Full Access Now or Learn more. Don't have an account yet?
Happiness is something that can be defined differently by each individual. Every person would have a different idea on how we reach happiness. For Aristotle, complete happiness comes through fulfilling human function well and this can be provided by practicing virtuous acts. On the other hand, Epicurus supports the idea that presence of pleasure and lack of pain can conduct us to complete happiness.
I shall argue that Epicurus and Aristotle have different ideas but they both aim towards a final good, which is happiness. This shows us that happiness is a final good that every individual aims to reach. Aristotle supports the idea that everybody must fulfill their function well enough to reach complete happiness and a fulfilled life is found in those who practice virtuous acts Bloyce, According to Aristotle, virtue is a moral state that makes a person perform his proper function well; for example, the function of the eye is to see well and the function of human is reason. Reason keeps our actions in moderation. It is always possible to go in excess or deficiency in regard of anger, pleasure etc.
Therefore, if people keep everything in moderation such as friendship, courage, pleasure etc. Epicurus, on the other hand, supports the idea that pleasure is good and pain is bad. Happiness is possible in a state in which there is absence of pain in the body and absence of trouble in the soul Bloyce, People can achieve this state of happiness if they accept the four-part cure of Epicureanism: 1.
Do not fear gods 2. Do not worry about death 3. What is good is easy to get 4. Therefore, gods are happy and they would not hurt people. Second, people should not fear death, because while people exist death is not present and when death exists, they are not present. Third, what is good is easy to get. Finally, he states that what is terrible is easy to endure. In his theory what is terrible causes pain and we can push that pain away by focusing on the opposite feeling, which is pleasure Ad Bergsma, On the other side, if they do not pursue this theory they cannot attain happiness. DAYLIK3 Furthermore, it is important to consider these philosophies with their suitability to the human life, because if an ethical theory does not suit well to human life it would not be successful.For example, if you want to eat more, but you are fat you should not eat it because it will satisfy your instant desires, because after some time you will get fatter and unhappy. Moral luck is considered to be when a person takes full praise Comparing Epictetus And Aristotles Theory Of Moral Luck blame for an outcome of a situation, even when the person did not have full control over the action or the consequence in the first place. Death plays an important role in organizing our lives. But those who occupy the middle also face Comparing Epictetus And Aristotles Theory Of Moral Luck formidable Comparing Epictetus And Aristotles Theory Of Moral Luck where can one draw a Essay On Good And Evil In Beowulf line between acceptable and unacceptable forms of luck?